Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 44, Issue 7, pp 1389–1393 | Cite as

Antiviral activity of crude extracts from Commiphora swynnertonii against Newcastle disease virus in ovo

  • Gaymary George Bakari
  • Robert A. MaxEmail author
  • Robinson H. Mdegela
  • Elliot C. J. Phiri
  • Mkumbukwa M. A. Mtambo
Original Research


Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of crude extracts from resin, leaves, stem barks and root barks of Commiphora swynnertonii against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) using an in ovo assay. Nine-day-old embryonated chicken eggs were divided into seven groups (n = 6) and received various treatments. Six groups were inoculated with velogenic NDV strain; five groups out of these were treated with different concentrations of the four extracts or a diluent, dimethylsulphoxide. The uninoculated and inoculated groups were left as negative and positive controls, respectively. Embryo survival was observed daily and embryo weights were measured day 5 post-inoculation; a few eggs from selected groups were left to hatch. Allantoic fluid from treated eggs and serum from hatched chicks were collected for hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests to detect NDV in the eggs and antibodies against NDV in the hatched chicks respectively. Results showed that embryo survival and mean embryo weight were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in those groups which were treated with the crude extracts from C. swynnertonii than the positive control group. Also the extracts significantly (p < 0.001) reduced virus titres, whereas no viruses were detected in the allantoic fluids of the resin-treated group at the highest concentration of 500 μg/mL. Furthermore, the HI test results showed very low levels of antibodies against NDV in chicks hatched from resin and root bark extract-treated eggs suggesting that these plant materials were capable of destroying the NDV before stimulating the developing chick’s immunity. The current findings have clearly demonstrated that crude extracts especially that of resin from C. swynnertonii have strong antiviral activity against NDV in ovo. In vivo trials are needed to validate the use of resin from the tree in controlling Newcastle disease in chickens.


Commiphora swynnertonii Newcastle disease virus Crude extracts Chickens 



The study has been funded by the Carnergie Rise AFNNET Program. The authors wish to thank the many people who assisted at various stages of the work including botanists and laboratory technicians at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaymary George Bakari
    • 1
  • Robert A. Max
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robinson H. Mdegela
    • 1
  • Elliot C. J. Phiri
    • 1
  • Mkumbukwa M. A. Mtambo
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineSokoine University of AgricultureMorogoroTanzania

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