Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 44, Issue 7, pp 1389–1393 | Cite as

Antiviral activity of crude extracts from Commiphora swynnertonii against Newcastle disease virus in ovo

  • Gaymary George Bakari
  • Robert A. MaxEmail author
  • Robinson H. Mdegela
  • Elliot C. J. Phiri
  • Mkumbukwa M. A. Mtambo
Original Research

Abstract

Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of crude extracts from resin, leaves, stem barks and root barks of Commiphora swynnertonii against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) using an in ovo assay. Nine-day-old embryonated chicken eggs were divided into seven groups (n = 6) and received various treatments. Six groups were inoculated with velogenic NDV strain; five groups out of these were treated with different concentrations of the four extracts or a diluent, dimethylsulphoxide. The uninoculated and inoculated groups were left as negative and positive controls, respectively. Embryo survival was observed daily and embryo weights were measured day 5 post-inoculation; a few eggs from selected groups were left to hatch. Allantoic fluid from treated eggs and serum from hatched chicks were collected for hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests to detect NDV in the eggs and antibodies against NDV in the hatched chicks respectively. Results showed that embryo survival and mean embryo weight were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in those groups which were treated with the crude extracts from C. swynnertonii than the positive control group. Also the extracts significantly (p < 0.001) reduced virus titres, whereas no viruses were detected in the allantoic fluids of the resin-treated group at the highest concentration of 500 μg/mL. Furthermore, the HI test results showed very low levels of antibodies against NDV in chicks hatched from resin and root bark extract-treated eggs suggesting that these plant materials were capable of destroying the NDV before stimulating the developing chick’s immunity. The current findings have clearly demonstrated that crude extracts especially that of resin from C. swynnertonii have strong antiviral activity against NDV in ovo. In vivo trials are needed to validate the use of resin from the tree in controlling Newcastle disease in chickens.

Keywords

Commiphora swynnertonii Newcastle disease virus Crude extracts Chickens 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study has been funded by the Carnergie Rise AFNNET Program. The authors wish to thank the many people who assisted at various stages of the work including botanists and laboratory technicians at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Hanus, L.O., Rezanka, T., Dembitsky, V.M., Moussaieff, A., 2005. Myrrh—commiphora, chemistry. Biomedical Paper, 149, 3–28.Google Scholar
  2. Jassim, S.A.and Naji, M.A., 2003. Novel antiviral agents: a medicinal plant perspective, Journal of Applied Microbiology 95, 412–427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kaoneka, B., Mollel, M., Lyatuu, F., 2007. Leaf essential oils composition and tick repellency activity of C. swynnertonii, Journal of Biological Research, Thessaloniki 8, 213–216.Google Scholar
  4. Minja, M.M.J., 1989. Collection of Tanzanian medicinal plants for biological activity studies. In: P.M. Msolla and R. R. Kazwalla (eds), Proceedings of the Seventh Tanzanian Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, 67–68.Google Scholar
  5. Mtambo, M.M.A., Mushi, E.J., Kinabo, L.D.B., Maeda-Machang’u, A., Mwamengele, G.L.M., Yongolo, M.G.S., Temu, R.P.C., 1999. Evaluation of the efficacy of the crude extracts of Capsicum frutescens, Citrus limoni and Opuntia vulgaris against Newcastle disease in domestic a fowl in Tanzania Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 68, 55–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. O.I.E., 1996. The Newcastle disease, In: Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines, 161–169.Google Scholar
  7. Parekh, J. and Chanda, S., 2006. In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Launaea procumbens Roxb. (Labiateae), Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) and Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae), African Journal of Biomedical Research, 9, 89–93.Google Scholar
  8. Ruffo, C.K., Birnie, A., Tengnäs B., 2002. Edible wild plants of Tanzania, Regional Land Management Unit (RELMA), Technical Handbook Series 27, Nairobi, Kenya. Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA), 766–767.Google Scholar
  9. Saimo, M. K., Bizimenyera, E. S., Bwanika, A., Ssebuguzi, F., Weny, G., Lubega, G. W., 2003: Ethnoveterinary practices in Uganda: use of medicinal plants in treating helminthosis and coccidiosis in rural poultry and goats in Uganda, Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa.Google Scholar
  10. Sally E.G., 2002. A basic laboratory manual for the small-scale production and testing of i-2 Newcastle disease vaccine, FAO-Animal Production and Health Commission Asia and the Pacific 2002.Google Scholar
  11. Sambuta, A.K. and Masola, S.N., 2006. The efficacy of Commiphora swynnertonii extracts in the control of external parasites in livestock. Proceedings of First Costech Scientific and Technological Conference Programme, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 42–43.Google Scholar
  12. Senne, D.A., 1998. Virus propagation in embryonating eggs, In: A laboratory manual for the isolation and identification of avian pathogens. David E. Swayne, John, R. Glisson, Mark, W. Jackwood James, E. Pearson and Willie M. Reed (eds), The Americans Association of Avian Pathologists, 235–240.Google Scholar
  13. Sulaiman, L.K., Oladele, O.A., Shittu, I.A., Emikpe, B.O., Oladokun, A.T., Meseko, C.A., 2011. In-ovo evaluation of the antiviral activity of methanolic root-bark extract of the African Baobab (Adansonia digitata Lin), African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 4256–4258.Google Scholar
  14. Wafaa, A.H., Abd-ALLA, H.I., Amer, H., El-Safty, M.M., 2007. Chemical composition and in vitro antiviral activity of Azadirachta indica a. juss (neem) leaves and fruits against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bursal disease virus, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 1, 801–812.Google Scholar
  15. Waihenya, R.K., Mtambo M.M.A., Nkwengulila, G., 2002. Evaluation of the efficacy of the crude extracts of Aloe secundiflora, in chickens experimentally infected with Newcastle disease virus, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 79, 299–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Zhirnov, O.P., Ovcharenko, A.V., Burkriskaya., A.G., 1985. Myxovirus replication of chicken embryos can be suppressed by Aprotonnin due to the blockage of viral glycoprotein cleavage. Journal of General Virology 66, 1633–1638Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaymary George Bakari
    • 1
  • Robert A. Max
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robinson H. Mdegela
    • 1
  • Elliot C. J. Phiri
    • 1
  • Mkumbukwa M. A. Mtambo
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineSokoine University of AgricultureMorogoroTanzania

Personalised recommendations