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Nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation characteristic in swamp buffaloes fed on chemically treated rice straw and urea

Abstract

The experiment was conducted to determine effects of urea–lime-treated rice straw and urea levels in concentrate on rumen fermentation, apparent nutrient digestibility, and cellulolytic bacteria population of 4-year-old, rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes. All animals were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments: factor A, two sources of roughage (rice straw and 2%urea + 2%lime-treated rice straw); factor B, two levels of urea in concentrate mixture (0% and 4%). Roughages were given ad libitum together with 0.3% BW of concentrate. It was found that voluntary feed intake, the digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, acetate, and propionate concentration were significantly increased (P < 0.05) by treated rice straw, while NH3-N, BUN, and propionic acid concentration were increased by both factors of treated rice straw and 4% urea in concentrate. The real-time PCR quantification of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus population, and anaerobic fungi were greater (P < 0.05), but the population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, protozoa, and methanogenic bacteria were reduced (P > 0.05) as influenced by treated rice straw and urea level. In conclusion, the combined use of urea–lime-treated rice straw and fed with concentrate (4% urea) could improve rumen ecology, rumen fermentation efficiency, and nutrient digestibility in swamp buffaloes.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express their most sincere gratitude and appreciation to the Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC) for their financial support of research and use of research facilities, and to The Graduate School of Khon Kaen University, Thailand and the Teaching Research Innovation Gain Project in Hanoi Agriculture University, Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training for all their financial and research input.

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Correspondence to Metha Wanapat.

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Nguyen, V.T., Wanapat, M., Khejornsart, P. et al. Nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation characteristic in swamp buffaloes fed on chemically treated rice straw and urea. Trop Anim Health Prod 44, 629–636 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9946-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9946-6

Keywords

  • Rice straw
  • Treated rice straw
  • Urea
  • Rumen fermentation
  • Real-time PCR