Skip to main content

Differences in prevalence of tuberculosis in indigenous and crossbred cattle under extensive and intensive management systems in Tanga Region of Tanzania

Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted between May 2003 and January 2004 on 130 households and 655 (246 indigenous and 409 crossbred) cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and assess risk factors associated with prevalence in smallholder dairy and traditionally managed herds in the Tanga region of North-eastern Tanzania. Random sampling, single intradermal tuberculin (SIT), comparative intradermal tuberculin (SCIT) tests and a questionnaire were used to gather individual animal and herd level information. From 642 animal tested by SIT, 35 (5.4%) were positive reactors for tuberculosis. Out of those 35 bTB positive reactors, eight (1.25%) proved to be positive reactors for tuberculosis upon further testing by SCIT. Based on the SCIT test, individual animal prevalences of bTB in the smallholder dairy and traditionally managed cattle was 2% and 0%, respectively. The corresponding overall herd prevalence was 5.7% and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, bTB prevalence seems low; however, its potential risk to public health is of concern; underscoring the need for further research, active surveillance to better understand the epidemiology of the disease in different cattle production systems in Tanzania.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Ameni, G., Hewinson, G. R., Aseffa, A., Young, D. B., and Vordermeier, M. H., 2008. Appraisal of interpretation criteria for the comparative intradermal tuberculin test for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in central Ethiopia. Clinical Vaccine Immunology, 15, 1272–1276.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ameni, G., Aseffa, A., Hewinson, G., and Vordermeier, M., 2010. Comparison of different testing schemes to increase the detection Mycobacterium bovis infection in Ethiopian cattle. Tropical Animal Health Production, 42(3): 375–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bonsu, O. E., Laing, E., and Akanmoriu, B. D., 2000. Prevalence of tuberculosis in cattle in the Dangme—West district of Ghana public health implications. Acta Tropica, 76, 9–14

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cannon, R. M., and Roe, R. T., 1982. Livestock disease surveys: a field manual for veterinarians. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, pp. 9–21.

    Google Scholar 

  • CDC (Center for Disease Control), 2007. A global perspective on tuberculosis. http://www.cdc.gov/tb/WorldTBDay/resources_global.htm, accessed on 12/1/2011

  • Cleaveland, S., Shaw, D. J., Mfinanga, S. G., Shirima, G. M., Kazwala, R. R., Eblate, E., and Sharp, M., 2007. Mycobacterium bovis in rural Tanzania: risk factors for infection in human and cattle populations. Tuberculosis, 87(1), 30–43.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corbett, E. L., Marston, B., Churchyard, G. J., and De Cock, K. M., 2006. Tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: opportunities, challenges, and change in the era of antiretroviral treatment. Lancet, 367, 926–937.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cosivi, O., Grange, J. M., Daborn, C. J., Raviglione, M. C., Fujikura, T, Cousins, D., Robinson R. A., Huchzermeyer, H. F., de Kantor, I., and Meslin, F. X., 1998. Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(1), 59–70.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Epi-info., 1996. Centre for disease control, version 6.04 d. Atlanta, GA, USA and Geneva, Switzerland, pp 6–20.

  • Grange, J. M., 2001. Mycobacterium bovis infection in human beings. Tuberculosis, 81, 71–77.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Humblet, M., Boschiroli, M. L., and Saegermam, C., 2009. Classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors in cattle: a stratified approach, Veterinary Research, 40, 50–56.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kazwala, R. R., Sharp, M., Shirima, G. M., Mfinanga, G., Cleaveland, S., Ernest, E. M., Buza J., and Kambarage, D. M., 2000. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Rift Valley Districts based on single intradermal comparative tuberculin testing. Tanzanian Veterinary Journal, 20, 136–140.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kazwala, R. R., Kambarage, D. M., Daborn, C. J., Nyange, J., Jiwa, J. S. F., and Sharp, M., 2001. Risk factors associated with the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Veterinary Research Communication, 25(8), 609–614.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kleinnijenhuis, J., Oosting, M., Joosten, L. A., Netea, M. G., and Van Crevel, R., 2011. Innate Immune Recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clinical and Development Immunology, doi: 10.1155/2011/405310.

  • Maiseli, N. G., Lema, B. L., Mchomba, O., Mwangoka, H. and Ndunguru, B., 1989. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. In Proceedings of the 7th TVA Sci. Conf. Arusha, Tanzania, 1–3 December 1989, pp. 217–224.

  • McGeary, A., 2008. The role of Mycobacterium bovis in tuberculosis in Africa. Medical Journal of Therapeutics Africa, 2(1), 59–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mdegela, R. H., Kusiluka, L. M. J., Kapaga, A. M., Karimuribo, E. D., Turuka, F. M., Bundala, A., Kivaria, F., Kabula, B., Manjurano, A., Loken, T., and Kambarage, D. M., 2004. Prevalence and determinants of mastitis and milk-borne zoonoses in smallholder dairy farming sector in Kibaha and Morogoro districts in eastern Tanzania. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, B. Infectious Disease and Veterinary Public Health, 51, 123–128.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • MOAF (Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security), 2006. National sample census of agriculture 2002/2003; Smallholder agriculture. Volume III: Livestock sector—national report. Central Printing works (LTD), Dar-es-Salaam, pp 3–7.

  • Munyeme, M., Muma, J. B., Sjkerve, E., Nambota, A. M., Phiri, I. G. K., Samui, K. L., Dorny, P., and Tryland, M., 2008. Risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in traditional cattle of the livestock/wildlife interface areas in the Kafue basin of Zambia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 85, 317–328.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Noordhuizen, J. P. T. M., Frankena, K., van der Hoofd, C. M., and Graat, E. A. M., 1997. Application of Quantitative Methods in Veterinary Epidemiology. Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. 25–53.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oloya, J., Muma, J. B., Opuda-Asibo, J., Djonne, B., Kazwala, R. R., and Skjerve, E., 2007. Risk factors for herd-level bovine tuberculosis seropositivity in transhumant cattle in Uganda. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 80, 318–329.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, C. J. C., Foster, C. R. W., Morris, P. A., and Teverson, R., 2003. The transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle. Research in Veterinary Science, 74, 1–15.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shirima, G. M., Kazwala, R. R., Sharp, M., and Kambarage, D. M., 1999. Studies on the distribution of tuberculosis lesions in slaughter cattle carcasses. In: Proceeding of the Tanzanian Veterinary Association Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, pp.1 77–182.

  • Shirima, G. M., Kazwala, R. R., and Kambarage, D. M., 2003. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in different farming systems in the eastern zone of Tanzania. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 57(3), 167–172.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shitaye, J. E., Tsegaye, W., and Pavlik, I., 2007. Bovine tuberculosis infection in animal and human populations in Ethiopia: a review. Veterinari Medicina, 52(8), 317–332.

    Google Scholar 

  • Statistix., 1994. Statistixs, 4.1 Analytical software. User’s Manual. Tallahassee, USA, 329.

  • TDDP (Tanga Dairy Development Programme), 1999. Annual Progress Report. TDDP, Tanga Tanzania, pp. 29–43.

  • Thrusfield, M. V., 2005. Veterinary Epidemiology, 3rd edition. Blackwell Science, Oxford, London, pp. 234–238.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weinhäupl, I., Schöpf, K. C., Khaschabi, D., Kapaga, A. M., and Msami, H. M., 2000. Investigations on the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis in dairy cattle in Dar es Salaam Region and in zebu cattle in Lugoba area, Tanzania. Tropical Animal Health Production, 32, 147–154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • WHO (World Health Organization), 2008. World Health Organization: Global Tuberculosis Control, Surveillance, Planning, Financing. WHO Report/HTM/TB/2008.393. Switzerland, Geneva. 978 92 4 156380 2 978 92 4 156380 2.

  • WHO (World Health Organization), 2009. WHO Report 2009: Global Tuberculosis Control: Epidemiology, Strategy, Financing. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 978 92 4 156380 2 978 92 4 156380 2.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to all participating farmers for their cooperation and help. The livestock field officers and technician at Tanga are thanked for their field and technical assistance. Thanks are extended to the Director of Veterinary Service, Tanzania for permission to publish this work.

Conflict of interest statement

None of the authors of this paper has a financial or personal relationship with other people or organization that could inappropriately influence or bias the content of the paper.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Emmanuel Senyael Swai.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Swai, E.S., Schoonman, L. Differences in prevalence of tuberculosis in indigenous and crossbred cattle under extensive and intensive management systems in Tanga Region of Tanzania. Trop Anim Health Prod 44, 459–465 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9919-9

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9919-9

Keywords

  • Bovine
  • Prevalence
  • Risk
  • Tanga
  • Tanzania
  • Tuberculosis