Skip to main content

Studies on BVD involving establishment of sentinel calves and assessment of herd immunity in a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Little information is published, so far, regarding bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. This study is the first of its kind in the country. Its aim was to explore the BVD situation in a large dairy farm, which has been experiencing reproduction problems suggestive of BVD virus infection, albeit the practice of routine vaccination. The study took two pathways; the first involved establishment of a cohort of sentinel calves so as: (a) to note the BVD virus activity in the farm by following the time lapse and pattern for waning of the maternally derived antibodies and detection of any subsequent seroconversion and (b) to look for any clinical signs suggestive of BVD virus infection in these calves. The second pathway was to assess the level of herd immunity in the different age groups of lactating cows and maiden heifers. The obtained results were discussed, and control strategies were outlined.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  • Abu-Elzein, E.M.E., Alafaleq, A.I., Mellor, P.W., Elbashir, A.M., and Hassanein, M. M., 1998. Study on Akabane virus infection in Saudi Arabia by the use of sentinel ruminants. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 119, 473–478

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Khalyifa, M.A., Abu-Elzein, E.M.E., & Gameel, A.A., 2010. Identification of cattle persistently infected with BVDV by ear-notch testing in Saudi Arabia. Veterinary Record, 167, 660–661

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brock, K.V., Redman, D.R., Vickers, M.L, Irvine, N.E., 1991. Quantitation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in embryo transfer flush fluids collected from a persistently infected heifer. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 3, 99–100

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Carlsson, U.G., Fredriksson, G., Alenius, S. and Kinah, H., 1989. Bovine virus diarrhea virus, a cause of early pregnancy failure in the cow. Journal Veterinary Medicine A, 36, 15–23

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Coria, M.F. and McClurkin A., 1978. Specific immune tolerance in an apparently healthy bull persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Journal American Veterinary Medical Association, 172, 449–451

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Coria, M.F. and McClurkin, A.W., 1978a. Duration of active and colostrums'-derived passive antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea virus in calves. Canadian Journal of comparative Medicine, 42, 239–243

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cornish, T.E., Van Olphen, A.L., Cavender, J.L., Edwards, J.M.P., Jaeger, T., Vieyra L. L., Woodard L.F., Miller D. R., and O'Toole, M., 2005. Immuno-histochemistry, ear notch antigen-capture ELISA, and buffy coat virus isolation for detection of calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 17, 110–117

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Howard, C.J., 1990. Immunological responses to bovine viral diarrhea virus infections. Review Scientific Technical Office International Epizooties, 9, 95–103

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kampa, J., 2006. Epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhoea virus and bovine herpesvirus type 1 infections in dairy cattle herds, (unpublished PhD thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala)

  • Larson, B., Niskanen R., & Alenius S., 1994. Natural infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a dairy herd—a spectrum of symptoms including early reproductive failure and retained placenta. Animal Reproduction Sciences, 36, 37–48

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Larson, R.L., Pierce, V.L., Grotelueschen, D.M., and Wittum, T.E. 2001. Bovine virus diarrhoea virus in U.S. beef herds, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 49, 83–94

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lindberg, A., 2002. Epidemiology and eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus infections (unpublished PhD thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala)

  • Moerman, A., Straver, P.J., De Jong, M.C., Quak, J., Baanvinger, T. & Van Oirschot, J.T., 1994. Clinical consequences of a bovine virus diarrhea virus infection in a dairy herd: a longitudinal study. Veterinary Qeensland, 16, 115–119

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • OIE, 2008. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea. In: Manual of Standards Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines, Chapter X.5., 18 PP. (http://www.oie.int)

  • Olafson, P., McCallum, A.D. & Fox F.H., 1946. An apparently new transmissible disease of cattle. Cornell Veterinarian, 36, 205–213

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the colleagues at the farm for their kind help, Dr. Huda Abu Araki for help in the figures, and Mr. Obaid for arrangement of the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Eltayb Abu Elzein.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Abu Elzein, E., AlKhalyifa, M. Studies on BVD involving establishment of sentinel calves and assessment of herd immunity in a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. Trop Anim Health Prod 44, 413–417 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9912-3

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9912-3

Keywords

  • Anamnestic response
  • BVDV
  • In utero infection
  • Herd immunity
  • Sentinel calves
  • Waning of maternally derived antibodies (MDA)