Skip to main content

Prevalence and biology of goat warble fly infestation by Przhevalskiana silenus in Jammu province, India

Abstract

Examination of 3,960 goats brought from six districts of Jammu province and slaughtered at Jammu abattoir from July 2005 to June 2006 revealed 47.22% prevalence of larval stages of warble fly (Przhevalskiana silenus Brauer, 1858) in goats. Highest prevalence was recorded in Udhampur (56.44%) and lowest in Doda district (13.49%). Classification of the study area into four zones based on height (meters above sea level), viz., zone I (300–325 m asl), zone II (325–800 m asl), zone III (800–1,500 m asl), and zone IV (>1,500 m asl), revealed significant (p < 0.01) difference in infestation among animals of zone II (71.68%), zone III (40.12%), and zone IV (22.41%). However, animals of zone I did not reveal any infestation. Statistical analysis in relation to age showed significant (p < 0.01) difference among different age groups, i.e., <1 year (2.81%), 1–3 years (51.17%), and >3 years (43.16%). Breed-wise analysis also showed significantly (p < 0.01) higher infestation rate among Bakerwali (51.51%) goats as compared to Beetal (42.59%). But no significant difference was recorded among male (47.81%) and female (46.82%) animals. The overall mean larva count (L1, L2, and L3) was observed to be 14.72 ± 0.34, ranging from 4 to 72. It was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in animals of zone II (22.20 ± 0.21) as compared to goats of zones III (14.21 ± 0.41) and IV (7.73 ± 0.90). Age-wise analysis of mean larva count also showed significant (P < 0.05) difference between animals of 1–3 years (16.25 ± 0.37) and >3 years of age (13.18 ± 0.40). Mean larvae count in relation to sex and breed did not reveal any significant difference. First-instar larvae (L1) were recorded from May to mid-September, second larval stage (L2) from mid-September to mid-December, and third-stage larvae (L3) from mid-December to February. However, No larvae were recorded from March to April, which is suggestive of pupation period in this region. Thus, it is concluded that adult fly is active in April to June. The results further confirmed that internal life cycle of P. silenus is subcutaneous and no migration of larvae occurs. This is the first report from India, based on slaughter house study on the prevalence and biology of goat warble fly infestation. It will help in devising suitable prophylactic and eradication program to check the economic losses rendered by adult fly.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Abo-Shehada, M.N., Batainah, T., Abuharfeil, N.M. and Torgerson, P.R., 2006. Przhevalskiana silenus myiasis among slaughter goats in northern Jordan. Veterinary Parasitology, 137, 345–350.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Cross, H.E., 1926. Bot Flies of the Punjab. Bulletin Agriculture Research Institute, Pusa, New Dellhi, Pp 16.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Faliero, S.M., Otranto, D., Traversa, D., Giangaspero, A., Santagada, G., Lia, R. and Puccini, V., 2001. Goat warble fly infestation by Przhevalskiana silenus (Diptera: Oestridae): immunoepidemiologic survey in the Basilicata region (southern Italy). Parassitologia, 43, 131–134.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Khan, M.Q., Cheema, A.H., Inayatullah, C. and Mirza, I.H., 1991. Prevalence and control of goat warbles. Asian- Australian Journal of Animal Sciences, 4, 157–159.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Khan, M.Q., Akhtar, S. and Cheema, A.U., 1994. Efficacy of Ivermectin against goat warbles (Przhevalskiana silenus Brauer) in Pakistan. Veterinary Record, 135, 361.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Le Riche, P.D., Jorgensen, R.J., Campbell, J.B. and Efstathiou, G.C., 1973. Notes on the goat warble fly, P. aegagri Braur, 1863, in Ciprus. Journal of Natural History, 7, 615–622.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Madel, G. and Nahif, A.A., 1971. Zur Entwicklung, Histologie und Sekretion der larvalen Speicheldrüsen der Ziegendasselfliege Crivellia silenus Brauer (Diptera, Hypodermatidae). Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde, 37, 211–225.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Oryan, A., Razavi, S.M. and Bahrami, S., 2009. Occurrence and biology of goat warble fly infestation by Przhevalskiana Silenus (Diptera, Oestridae) in Iran. Veterinary Parasitology, 166, 178–181.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Otranto, D. and Puccini, V., 2000. Further evidence on the internal life cycle of Przhevalskiana silenus (Diptera,Oestridae). Veterinary Parasitology, 88, 321–328.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Otranto, D. and Treversa, D., 2004. Molecular evidence indicating that Przhevalskiana silenus, Przhevalskiana aegagri and Przhevalskiana crossii (Diptera : oesteridae ) are one species. Acta Parasitology, 49, 173–176.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Otranto, D., Boulard, C., Giangaspero, A., Carinella, M.P., Rimmele, D. and Puccini V., 1999. Serodiagnosis of goat warble fly infestation by Przhevalskiana silenus with a commercial ELISA kit. Veterinary Record, 19, 726–729.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Papadopoulos, E., Himonas, C. and Boulard, C., 1997. The prevalence of goat hypodermosis in Greece. Parasitologia, 39, 427–429.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Puccini, V., Tassi, P. and Giangaspero, A., 1986. Miasi sottocutanea del Gargano: Studio epizoologico. Parasitologia, 28, 324.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Rahbari, S. and Ghasemi, J., 1997. Study on economic aspects of goat grubs in Iran. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29, 243–244.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Sayin, F., Mimioglu, M., Meric, I., Dincer, S., Sincer, N. and Orkiz, M., 1973. Ankara Kecisi Hypodermosis’i uzerinde arastirmalar. I- P. silenus (Brauer) ’un Biyolojisi (in Turkish with English Abstract). Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 20, 192–202.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Sen, S.K. and Fletcher, T.B., 1962. Veterinary Entomology and Acarology in India. Indian council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp 1–668.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Soni, B.N., 1942. Eggs of the goat warble fly (Hypoderma crossii Patton). Current Science, 11, 280–281.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Tarry, D.W., 1980. Warble fly infestation and climate. Veterinary Record, 106, 559–560.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Tassi, P., Puccini, V. and Giangaspero, A., 1989. Infection by the warble fly Przhevalskiana silenus Brauer, 1858, in the Italian goats. An update up to 1988. Parassitologia, 31, 239–250.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Vaillant, J., Argente, G. and Boulard, C., 1997. Bovine Hypodermosis: a sequential procedure for observation of livestock for surveillance of recrudescence in eradicated zone. Veterinary Research, 28, 461–471.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Yadav, A., Khajuria, J.K. and Soodan, J.S., 2006. Warble fly infestation in goats of Jammu. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, 20, 149–152.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Zumpt, F., 1965. Myiasis in man and animals of the old world. Butterworths, London, pp. 205–214.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Jammu, India for the encouragement and facilities provided. Thanks are also extended to the Commissioner Municipal Committee, Jammu, Dr. P. Bharti, and other staff members of Jammu slaughter house for their cooperation.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anish Yadav.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yadav, A., Katoch, R., Khajuria, J.K. et al. Prevalence and biology of goat warble fly infestation by Przhevalskiana silenus in Jammu province, India. Trop Anim Health Prod 43, 1487–1492 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9813-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Przhevalskiana silenus
  • Warble fly
  • Prevalence
  • Biology
  • Goat
  • India