Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 41, Issue 8, pp 1685–1693 | Cite as

Ethno-veterinary control of parasites, management and role of village chickens in rural households of Centane district in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

  • M. Mwale
  • P. J. MasikaEmail author
Article

Abstract

Mwale and Masika 2009 Ethno-veterinary control of parasites, management and role of village chickens in rural households of Centane district in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Tropical Animal Health and Production. Village chickens contribute significantly towards rural livelihood in the African continent through the provision of animal protein, income and socio-cultural uses. However, village chickens are susceptible to parasite infestation. Due to limitations of using western drugs to control these parasites, farmers resort to the use of ethno-veterinary medicine (EVM). However, there is dearth of information on EVM use in chickens. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to document various EVM practices used in controlling gastro-intestinal parasites in village chickens. Stratified random sampling was used to select 62 chicken farmers that were interviewed using a structured questionnaire About 70 and 96.7% of farmers provided housing and water for their chickens respectively whereas the rest did not. The chief role of chickens was meat provision (91.7%). Most households (86%) reported parasite problems in chickens, particularly gastro-intestinal parasites. Eighty-three percent of the interviewed respondents use medicinal plants to control both internal and external parasites in chickens. Use of plants increased with parasite incidences (r=0.347; P<0.01). Mainly gastro-intestinal parasites were problematic and were largely controlled by medicinal plants. Further research on pharmacological properties, safety and efficacy of these plants is important for improved chicken productivity and hence rural livelihood.

Keywords

Gastro-intestinal parasites Management Medicinal plants Rural farmers Village chickens 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The researchers are very grateful to the National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa for funding the project. The researchers are indebted to the Department of Agricultural and Rural Development Research Institute (ARDRI) for the institutional and technical support, Messrs Qondile Nyamezele, Lubabalo and Busani Moyo for their invaluable assistance in data collection and the Centane district farmers for their mutual understanding and co-operation.

References

  1. Anthony, J-P., Fyfe, L. and Smith, H., 2005. Plant active components-a resource for antiparasitic agents. Trends in Parasitology, 21 (10), 462-468 doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2005.08.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown, B., 2007. New anthelmintics for livestock: the time is right. Trends in Parasitology, 23 (1), 21-24 doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2006.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dlamini, S.O., 2002. Family Poultry Studies in KwaZulu-Natal, (Unpublished MSc Thesis, University of Natal, South Africa)Google Scholar
  4. Dold, A.P. and Cocks, M.L., 2001. Traditional veterinary medicine in the Alice district of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 97, 375-379Google Scholar
  5. Eastern Cape Development Cooperation Website (ECDC). 2007. Climate and Regional distribution statistics. (http://www.ecdc.co.za/easterncape/ec.asp?pageid=22)
  6. Guèye, E.F., 1997. Diseases in village chickens: Control through ethno-veterinary medicine. ILEIA Newsletter, 13 (2), 20-21Google Scholar
  7. Guèye, E.F., 2001. Marketing of family poultry products in Africa to be improved. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 5 (17), 12-16Google Scholar
  8. Guèye, E.F., 2002. Employment and income generation through family poultry in low-income food-deficit countries. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 58, 541-556 doi: 10.1079/WPS20020039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Halima, H.F., Neser, W.C., van Marle-Koster, E. and De Kock, A., 2007. Village-based indigenous chicken production system in north-west Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 39 (3), 189-197 doi: 10.1007/s11250-007-9004-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kitalyi, A.J, 1998. Village chicken production system in rural Africa household food security and gender issues: FAO corporate document repository. Publishing Management Group. FAO Information Division, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  11. Mack, S., Hoffmann, D. and Otte, J., 2005. The contribution of poultry to rural development. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 61, 7-14 doi: 10.1079/WPS200436 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mafu, J.V. and Masika, P.J., 2003. Small-scale broiler production by rural farmers in the central Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Fort Hare Papers, 12 (1), 25-34Google Scholar
  13. Mapiye, C., Mwale, M., Mupangwa, J.F., Chimonyo, M., Foti, R. and Mutenje, M.J., 2008. A Research Review of Village chicken production constraints and Opportunities in Zimbabwe. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science, 21 (11), 1680-1688Google Scholar
  14. Masika, P.J. and Afolayan, A.J., 2002. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Pharmaceutical Biology, 41 (1), 16-21 doi: 10.1076/phbi.41.1.16.14694 Google Scholar
  15. Mathius-Mundy, E. and McCorkle, C.M., 1989. Ethnoveterinary medicine: an annotated bibliography. Bibliographies in Technology and Social Change, No 6, 199Google Scholar
  16. Moyo, B. and Masika, P.J., 2009. Tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers and the effect of ticks on cattle in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 41, 517-523 doi: 10.1007/s11250-008-9216-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Muchadeyi, F.C., Sibanda, S., Kusina, N.T., Kusina, J. and Makuza, S., 2004. The village chicken production system in Rushinga District of Zimbabwe. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 16 Google Scholar
  18. Muchadeyi, F.C., Wollny, C.B.A., Eding, H., Weigend, S., Makuza, S.M. and Simianer, H., 2007. Variation in village chicken production systems among agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 39, 453–461 doi: 10.1007/s11250-007-9050-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Muchenje, V., Manzini, M.M., Sibanda, S. and Makuza, S.M., 2000. Socio-economic and biological issues to consider in smallholder poultry development and research in Southern Africa in the new millennium, Regional Conference on Sustainable Animal Agriculture and Crisis Mitigation in Livestock-dependent Systems in Southern Africa, Malawi Institute of Management (MIM), Lilongwe, Malawi: 30th October to 1st November, 2000.Google Scholar
  20. Mungube, E.O., Bauni, S.M., Tenhagen, B.A., Wamae, L.W., Nzioka, S.M., Muhammed, L. and Nginyi, J.M., 2008. Prevalence of parasites of the local scavenging chickens in a selected semi-arid zone of Eastern Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 40, 101–109 doi: 10.1007/s11250-007-9068-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Musemwa, L., Mushunje, A., Chimonyo, M., Fraser, G., Mapiye, C. and Muchenje, V., 2008. Nguni cattle marketing constraints and opportunities in the communal areas of South Africa: Review. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 3 (4), 239-245Google Scholar
  22. Mwale, M., Bhebhe, E., Chimonyo, M. and Halimani, T.E., 2005. Use of Herbal Plants in Poultry Health Management in the Mushagashe Small-Scale Commercial Farming Area in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, 3 (2), 163-170Google Scholar
  23. Mwamachi, D.M., Mukendi, F.M., Omondi, G.W. and Sigilai, P.M., 2003. Worm infestation in indigenous chickens: seasonal variation as a guide to strategic control in the coastal sub humid zones of Kenya. First Adaptive Research Conference, KARI, June16 -19 2003Google Scholar
  24. Naidoo, M., 2000. Merging different worlds in Agricultural education, (Unpublished MSc. Thesis, Wageningen University, Netherlands)Google Scholar
  25. Njunga, G.R., 2003. Ecto- and haemoparasites of chickens in Malawi with emphasis on the effects of the chicken louse, Menacanthus cornutus, (Unpublished MSc. Thesis, The Royal Veterinary and Agriculture University, Dyrlægevej 2, Denmark)Google Scholar
  26. Phiri, I.K., Phiri, A.M., Ziela, M., Chota, A., Masuku, M. and Monrad, J., 2007. Prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminthes and their effects on weight gain in free-range chickens in Central Zambia. Tropical Animal Health and Production 39, 309–315 doi: 10.1007/s11250-007-9021-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Safalaoh, C.L.A. and Sankhulani, F.G., 2004. Crossbreeding as a strategy to improve productivity of indigenous chickens in Malawi. Proceeding of the 22nd World’s Poultry Congress, Abs. p 896Google Scholar
  28. Shanley, P. and Luz, L., 2003. The Impacts of Forest Degradation on Medicinal Plant Use and Implications for Health Care in Eastern Amazonia. Bioscience, 53 (6), 573 doi: 10.1641/0006-3568(2003)053[0573:TIOFDO]2.0.CO;2
  29. Sonaiya, E.B., 2007. Review article: Family poultry, food security and the impact of HPAI. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 63, 132-138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Statistical Analytical Systems (SAS), 2005. SAS/STAT User’s guide, Release 8.1 Edition SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USAGoogle Scholar
  31. Steenkamp, V, Stewart, M.J., 2007. Medicinal Applications and Toxicological Activities of Aloe Products. Pharmaceutical Biology, 45, 411-420 doi: 10.1080/13880200701215307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Swatson, H.K., Nsahlai, I.V. and Byebwa, B., 2001. The status of smallholder poultry production in the Alfred district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: priorities for intervention, Livestock Community and Environment, Proceedings of the 10th Conference of the Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
  33. Swatson, H.K., Tshovhote, J., Nesamvumi, E., Ranwedzi, N.E. and Fourie, C., 2002. Characterization of indigenous free-ranging poultry Production systems under traditional management Conditions in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. (http://www.ilri.org/Link/Files/Theme3/Avian%20Flu/characterization%20of%20indegenous%20free%20ranging%20poultry%20SA.pdf)
  34. Swatson, H.K., 2003. The Small Holder Poultry Development workshop: The Potential of smallholder indigenous poultry production in improving the livelihoods and food security of rural households, Proceedings of Nature and Development Group of Africa in Action for Sustainable Rural Development, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg. South Africa, October 28-31, 2003.Google Scholar
  35. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), 1999. SPSS Base 10.0 for Window Users Guide, SPSS Inc, Chicago ILGoogle Scholar
  36. van Marle-Köster, E., Hefer, C.A., Nel, L.H. and Groenen, M.A.M., 2008. Genetic diversity and population structure of locally adapted South African chicken lines: Implications for conservation. South African Journal of Animal Science, 38 (4), 271-281Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Livestock and Pasture ScienceUniversity of Fort HareAliceSouth Africa
  2. 2.Agricultural and Rural Development Research Institute (ARDRI)University of Fort HareAliceSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations