A study was conducted for two consecutive years (1998–1999) to determine the seasonal patterns of strongyle infection in working donkeys of Ethiopia. For the purpose 2385 donkeys from midland and lowland areas were examined for the presence of parasitic ova. A hundred percent prevalence of strongyle infection with similar seasonal pattern of strongyle faecal worm egg output was obtained in all study areas. However, seasonal variations in the number of strongyle faecal worm egg output were observed in all areas. The highest mean faecal worm egg outputs were recorded during the main rainy season (June to October) in both years in all areas. Although an increase in the mean strongyle faecal egg output was obtained in the short rainy season (March–April) followed by a drop in the short dry season (May), there was no statistically significant difference between the short rainy season and long dry season (Nov–Feb) (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference however, was obtained between the main rainy season and short rainy season, and between the main rainy season and dry season (P < 0.05). Based on the results obtained it is suggested that the most economical and effective control of strongyles can be achieved by strategic deworming programme during the hot dry pre-main rainy season (May), when the herbage coverage is scarce and helminthologically ‘sterile’, and the arrested development of the parasites is suppose to be terminating. This could insure the greatest proportion of the existing worm population to be exposed to anthelmintic and also reduces pasture contamination and further infection in the subsequent wet season.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Austin, S.M., 1994. Large strongyles in horses, Compendium and Continuing Education for Practicing Veterinarian, 16, 650–656.
Cannon, R.M. and Roe, R.T, 1982. Livestock disease surveys: a field manual for veterinarians. Australian Bureau of animal health, Commonwealth of Australia. pp 35.
Drudge, J.H., Lyons, E.T., 1977. Pathology of infection with internal parasites of horses, The blue book for veterinarian, 27, 267–275.
Duncan, J.L., 1973. The life cycle, pathogenesis and epidemiology of S. vulgaris in the horses, Equine Veterinary Journal, 5, 20–25.
Duncan, J.L., Love S., 1991. Preliminary observation on an alternative strategy for the control of horse strongyles. Equine Veterinary Journal, 23, 226–228.
ENMSA, 1998. Ethiopian National Metrology Service Agency, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Eysker, M., Jansen, J., Kooyman, F.N.J., Mirck, M.H., Wensing, T.M., 1986. Comparison of two control systems for cyathostome infection in the horse and further aspects of the epidemiology of their infections, Veterinary Parasitology, 22, 105–112.
Eysker, M., Boersema, J.H., Kooyman, F.N.J., 1990. Seasonally inhibited development of cyathostominae nematodes in Shetland ponies in The Netherlands, Veterinary Parasitology, 36, 259–264.
Eysker, M., Jansen, J., Mirck, M.H., 1984. Inhibited development of cyathostominae in the horse in the early third stage, Research in Veterinary Science, 37, 355–356.
Feseha, G., Mohammed, A., Yilma, J.M., 1991. Vermicular endoparasitism in donkeys of Debre Zeit and Menagesha, Ethiopia: strategic treatment with ivermectin and fenbendazole. In: D. Fielding and R.A. Pearson (eds). Donkeys, mules and horses in tropical agricultural development. Proceedings of a colloquium, 3–6 September, 1990. Edinburgh, Scotland. pp. 156–166.
Feseha, G., Alemu, G., Friew, K., Abule, I., Ketema, Y., 1997. An overview of donkey utilization and management in Ethiopia. In: S. Starkey and D. Fielding (eds). Donkeys, people and development. pp. 46–52.
Getachew, M.A., 1999. Epidemiological studies on the health and welfare of the Ethiopian donkeys, with particular reference to parasitic disease. (Unpublished MVM thesis, University of Glasgow Veterinary School).
Gomez, H.H., Georgi, J.R., 1991. Equine helminth infections control by selective chemotherapy, Equine Veterinary Journal, 23, 198–200.
Hass, D.K., 1979. Equine parasitism, Veterinary Practice: Veterinary Medicine/Small Animal Clinician, 74, 742–748.
Herd, R.P., 1986. Epidemiology and control of equine strongylosis at Newmarket, Equine Veterinary Journal, 18, 447–452.
Love, S., Duncan, J.L., 1992. The development of naturally acquired cyathostome infection in ponies, Veterinary Parasitology, 44, 127–142.
Miller, W.M.C., 1953. The general problem of parasitic infestation in horse, Veterinary Record, 65, 213–216.
MAFF, 1984. Manual of Veterinary Investigation Laboratory Techniques. Reference book 390, Vol. 2. London, UK.
MOA, 2004. Ministry of Agriculture, Ada-liben, Akaki and Boset Bureaus of Agriculture, Ethiopia.
Osterman, E., Hoglund, J., Ljungstrom, Nilsson, O., Uggla, A., 1999. A field survey on the distribution of strongyle infection of horses in Sweden and factors affecting faecal egg counts, Equine Veterinary Journal, 31, 68–72.
Pandey, V.S., Khallaayoune, K., Ouhelli, H., Dakkak, A., 1994. Parasites of donkeys in Africa. In: M. Bakkoury and R.A. Prentis (eds). Working Equines. Proceedings of the second International Colloquium, 22–24 April, 1994. Rabat, Morocco. pp. 35–44.
Poynter, D., 1954. Seasonal fluctuation in the number of strongyle egg passed by horses. Veterinary Record, 66, 74–78.
R Development Core Team (2004). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna, Australia. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org.
Soulsby, E.J.L., 1982. Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals (7th ed). Baillier Tindall. London, UK.
Starkey, P., 1994. Donkey utilisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: recent chances and apparent needs. In: M. Bakkoury and R.A. Prentis (eds). Working Equines. Proceedings of the second International Colloquium, 22–24 April, 1994. Rabat, Morocco. pp. 22–24.
Starkey, P., Starkey, M., 1997. Regional and world trends in donkey population. In: S. Starkey and D. Fielding (eds). Donkeys, people and development. pp. 10–21.
Svendsen, E.D., 1997. Donkeys abroad. The Professional Handbook of The Donkey (3rd ed). Whittet Books Limited. London, UK.
Svendsen, E.D., 1994. The main types of parasites affecting donkeys’ health in various parts of the world. In: M. Bakkoury and R.A. Prentis (eds). Working Equines. Proceedings of the second International Colloquium, 22–24 April, 1994. Rabat, Morocco. pp. 23–34.
Tembely, S., 1998. Development and survival of infective larvae of nematode parasites of sheep on pasture in a cool tropical environment, Veterinary Parasitology, 79, 81–87.
Thrushfield, M., 1995. Veterinary epidemiology (2nd ed). Black well science Ltd. Oxford, UK. pp 296–311.
Uhlinger, C.A., 1993. Use of faecal egg count data in equine practice, Compendium and Continuing Education for Practicing Veterinarian, 15, 742–748.
Yilma, J.M., Feseha, G., Svendsen, E.D. Mohammed, A., 1991. Health problems of working donkeys in Debre Zeit and Menagesha regions of Ethiopia. In: D. Fielding and R.A. Pearson (eds). Donkeys, mules and horses in tropical agricultural development. Proceedings of a colloquium, 3–6 September, 1990. Edinburgh, Scotland. pp. 151–155.
The Donkey Sanctuary financially supported the study. The authors are grateful to the Faculties of Veterinary Medicine of Addis Ababa and Glasgow Universities for their support and provision of the necessary facilities. The technical assistance of Alemayehu Fanta is acknowledged with thanks.
About this article
Cite this article
Getachew, M., Feseha, G., Trawford, A. et al. A survey of seasonal patterns in strongyle faecal worm egg counts of working equids of the central midlands and lowlands, Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod 40, 637–642 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-008-9142-5