Tribology Letters

, 68:10 | Cite as

Effects of Nano-SiO2 Addition in Drilling Fluid on Wear Behavior of 2Cr13 Steel Casing

  • Liangjie MaoEmail author
  • Mingjie Cai
  • Qingyou Liu
  • Xiangyang Wang
  • Yu Fan
  • Yufa He
  • Guorong Wang
Original Paper


This work studied the effects of nano-SiO2 addition in drilling fluid on the wear behavior of casing. The disc specimens and pin specimens were made of 2Cr13 steel and G105 steel, respectively, and the water-based drilling fluids added with different amount of nano-SiO2 were tested, based on which, the wear rate, surface morphology, surface profile, and composition of the wear product were analyzed. Results showed that, the main wear mechanism of 2Cr13 steel casing in the drilling fluid is abrasive–corrosive wear. Adding nano-SiO2 to the drilling fluid can significantly reduce the casing wear. As the nano-SiO2 concentration increases, the wear rate and mean friction coefficient both increase first and then decrease. Drilling fluid shows best lubrication performance when the nano-SiO2 concentration is 2%. The shielding effect of nano-SiO2 can slow down the vicious cycle of “oxidation–destruction–reoxidation” during the wear process. Microhardness of tribofilms increases when adding more nano-SiO2 into drilling fluid, which increases the wear resistance of disc surfaces. However, the excessive addition of nano-SiO2 on a 2% concentration basis can lead to the decrease in bonding strength between tribofilms and matrix, leading to large delamination on the disc surface and therefore reducing the shielding effect of nano-SiO2.


Nano-SiO2 2Cr13 steel casing Wear Lubrication effect 



Transmission electron microscopy


Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy


Scanning electron microscope


X-ray diffraction




Friction coefficient


Water-based mud



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51604235). China National Science and Technology Major Project “Changning-Weiyuan shale gas development demonstration project” (2016ZX05062), and Sichuan Science and Technology Project (2019YFS0045).


  1. 1.
    Tan, L., Gao, D., Zhou, J.: Casing wear prediction with considering initial internal casing eccentricity. Arab. J. Sci. Eng. 2, 1–11 (2017)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huang, M., Wang, Y., Chu, C.H., et al.: Wear resistance of alumina-coated oil casing steel N80 via MAO with rare earth additive. Ceram. Int. 43(8), 6397–6402 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ko, P.L., Humphreys, K., Matthews, C.: Reciprocating-sliding wear of sucker rods and production tubing in deviated oil wells. Wear 134(1), 13–28 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chu, S., Zhang, L., Fan, J.: Experimental study of casing wear under impact-sliding conditions. Petrol. Sci. 6(4), 445–450 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Williamson, J.S.: Casing wear: the effect of contact pressure. J. Petrol. Technol. 33(12), 2382–2388 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang, J., Li, C. Y., Sun, C. Y., Wei, J., Li, S. X., Xue, Q.: Microstructure and corrosion in simulated marine environment of CVD multilayer coatings. ISOPE-I-15-310. The Twenty-fifth International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, 21–26 June, Kona, Hawaii, USA (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yang, D.H., Zhang, X.S., Xue, Q.J.: Fretting wear behaviour of 2Cr13 stainless steel before and after laser treatment. Wear 171(1–2), 13–18 (1994)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wu, Q.L., Zhang, J.Q., Sun, Y.S.: Oxidation behavior of TiC particle-reinforced 304 stainless steel. Steel Res Int. 82(6), 719–725 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mosleh, M., Atnafu, N.D., Belk, J.H.: Modification of sheet metal forming fluids with dispersed nanoparticles for improved lubrication. Wear 267(5), 220–1225 (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu, X., Xu, N., Li, W., Zhang, M., Chen, L., Lou, W.: Exploring the effect of nanoparticle size on the tribological properties of SiO2/polyalkylene glycol nanofluid under different lubrication conditions. Tribol. Int. 109, 467–472 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu, N., Wang, J., Yang, J.: Combined effect of nano-SiO2 and nano-Al2O3 on improving the tribological properties of Kevlar fabric/phenolic laminate in water. Tribol. Trans. 59(1), 163–169 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bao, Y., Sun, J., Kong, L.: Effects of nano-SiO2, as water-based lubricant additive on surface qualities of strips after hot rolling. Tribol. Int. 114, 257–263 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bég, O. A., Espinoza, D. E. S., Kadir, A.: Experimental study of improved rheology and lubricity of drilling fluids enhanced with nano-particles. Appl. Nanosci. 8(5), 1069–1090 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alshubbar, G. D., Coryell, T. N., Atashnezhad, A., Akhtarmanesh, S., Hareland, G:. The effect of barite nanoparticles on the friction coefficient and rheology of water based mud. ARMA-2017-0147. 51st U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, 25–28 June, San Francisco, California, USA (2017, August)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen, Z.R., Liu, B.C., Liu, S.Q.: Effect of nano oxide particles addition on lubricating properties of water-based drilling fluid. Explor. Eng. 43(3), 27–32 (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang, S., Qiao, Y., Cui, Q., Zan, Y., Dong, X.: The effect of ultrasonic vibration on tribological performance with n-SiO2 additives. Tribology 32(4), 390–395 (2012)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Guo, Q.B., Rong, M.Z., Jia, G.L.: Sliding wear performance of nano-SiO2/short carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites. Wear 266(7), 658–665 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cai, J.H., Gu, S., Wang, F.: Decreasing coalbed methane formation damage using microfoamed drilling fluid stabilized by silica nanoparticles. J. Nanomater. 2016(10), 1–11 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Warren, T.: The effect of hole curvature on drill pipe while drilling inside casing or open hole. Spe J. (1977). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sanchez, R.A., Azar, J.J., Bassal, A.A.: Effect of drillpipe rotation on hole cleaning during directional-well drilling. Spe J. 4(2), 101–108 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gao, G., Miska, S.Z.: Dynamic buckling and snaking motion of rotating drilling pipe in a horizontal well. Spe J. 15(3), 867–877 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Feng, Z., Ren, L., Zhang, J.: Influence of additives on microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of nanocrystalline Zn–Ni coatings in a novel alkaline bath. RSC Adv. 6(48), 42029–42040 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li, S., Wu, X., Li, X.: Wear characteristics of Mo-W-type hot-work steel at high temperature. Tribol. Lett. 64(2), 32 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wei, M.X., Chen, K.M., Wang, S.Q.: Analysis for wear behaviors of oxidative wear. Tribol. Lett. 42(1), 1–7 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sayuti, M., Erh, O.M., Sarhan, A.A.D., Hamdi, M.: Investigation on the morphology of the machined surface in end milling of aerospace AL6061-T6 for novel uses of SiO2 nanolubrication system. J. Clean. Prod. 66, 655–663 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sayuti, M., Sarhan, A.A.D., Salem, F.: Novel uses of SiO2 nano-lubrication system in hard turning process of hardened steel AISI4140 for less tool wear, surface roughness and oil consumption. J. Clean. Prod. 67, 265–276 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Akshay, C., Yuan, S.Z., Hao, W.: Rehbinder effect in ultraprecision machining of ductile materials. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 133, 47–60 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Akshay, C., Hao, W.: Effect of surface-active media on chip formation in micromachining. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 271, 325–335 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hu, M., Zhang, L., Gao, X., Fu, Y., Yang, J., Weng, L.: Adhesion strength and tribological properties of Cr/Ag nanoscaled multilayer films. Tribology 32(6), 544–549 (2012)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cheng, L., Tieu, K., Wexler, D.: Significant enhancement of bond strength in the accumulative roll bonding process using nano-sized SiO2, particles. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209(10), 4830–4834 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Debicki, M.: Tribological thermodynamic model of the viscosity, flow properties and lubricating performance of lubricating oils. Wear 52(1), 13–26 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ciantar, C., Hadfield, M., Smith, A.M.: The influence of lubricant viscosity on the wear of hermetic compressor components in HFC-134a environments. Wear 236(1–2), 1–8 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chou, C.C., Lee, S.H.: Rheological behavior and tribological performance of a nanodiamond-dispersed lubricant. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 201(1–3), 542–547 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang, X., Jing, Y.U., Sun, Y., et al.: A solids-free brine drilling fluid system for coiled tubing drilling. Petrol. Explor. Dev. 45(3), 529–535 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Babaskin, Y.Z., Kutishchev, S.M., Kirchu, I.F.: Mastering the production of oil-field casing and drill pipe. Metallurgist 31(7), 212–213 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vračar, L., Dražić, D.M.: Influence of chloride ion adsorption on hydrogen evolution reaction on iron. Electroanal. Chem. 339(1–2), 269–279 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kadir, A., Bég, Oa., Gendy, M. E., et al.: Computational fluid dynamic and thermal stress analysis of coating for high temperature corrosion protection of aerospace gas turbine blades. Heat Transf. Asian Res. 48, 2302–2328 (2019). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mao, L., Cai, M., Wang, G.: Effect of rotation speed on the abrasive–erosive–corrosive wear of steel pipes against steel casings used in drilling for petroleum. Wear 410–411, 1–10 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and ExploitationSouthwest Petroleum UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.CNPC Engineering Technology R & D Company LimitedBeijingChina
  3. 3.Shale Gas Research Institute, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gas Field CompanyChengduChina
  4. 4.Cnooc Research Institute Company LimitedBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations