Advertisement

Tribology Letters

, 67:39 | Cite as

Strain Hardening and Strain-Rate Effect in Friction Between Projectile and Barrel During Engraving Process

  • B. WuEmail author
  • L. H. FangEmail author
  • J. Zheng
  • X. H. Yu
  • K. Jiang
  • T. Wang
  • L. M. Hu
  • Y. L. Chen
Original Paper
  • 53 Downloads

Abstract

The engraving of projectile is of great importance during interior ballistics when a gun is fired. In order to investigate the effect of loading speed on the engraving process, quasi-static and dynamic engraving tests are performed, respectively. Small caliber projectiles were engraved by using an MTS809 under predetermined low loading speeds and a specially designed gas gun-based test rig under high loading speeds. The hoop strain of the exterior surface of gun barrel during engraving process was measured. Surface morphology of copper jacket after engraving was observed. Microstructural evolution in cross section of copper jacket was investigated. The present study demonstrates the critical role of strain hardening at low loading speeds and strain rate effect as well as thermal effect at high loading speeds during the engraving process.

Keywords

Gun barrel Projectile Interaction Engraving Friction Strain hardening Strain-rate effect 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the financial support from the Natural Science Foundation of China (51475471 and 51175512).

References

  1. 1.
    Hartman, W.F., Stirbis, P.P.: Rotating band pressures and engraving forces in 155 mm artillery shell. Trans. ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 95, 124–129 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Montgomery, R.S.: Muzzle wear of cannon. Wear 33(2), 359–368 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Montgomery, R.S.: Interaction of copper-containing rotating band metal with gun bores at the environment present in a gun tube. Wear 33(1), 109–128 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Montgomery, R.S.: Surface melting of rotating bands. Wear 38(2), 235–243 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Montgomery, R.S.: Friction and wear at high sliding speeds. Wear 36(3), 275–298 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Montgomery, R.S.: Projectile lubrication by melting rotating bands. Wear 39(1), 181–183 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Montgomery, R.S.: Friction of gilding metal sliding on chromium-plated steel. Wear 50(2), 387–392 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Montgomery, R.S.: Wear of projectile rotating bands. Wear 101(4), 347–356 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen, P.C.T.: (1999) Analysis of Engraving and Wear in a Projectile Rotating Band. Technical Report ARCCB-TR-99012. US Armament Research, WatervlietGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen, P.C.T., Leach, M.: Modeling of Barrel/Projectile Interaction in a Rotating Band. Technical Report ARCCB-TR-01011. US Armament Research, Watervliet (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Siewert, J.: Small caliber engraving force measurements. In: 50th Annual Joint Services Small Arms Systems Section Annual Symposium. NDIA Small Arms, Las Vegas (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Siewert, J., Cytron, S.: Rifling Profile Push Tests: An Assessment of Bullet Engraving Forces in Various Rifling Designs. Contractor Report ARAET-CR-04002. United States Army Armament Research, Picatinny Arsenal (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    South, J., Powers, B., Minnicino, M.: Evaluations of computational techniques for the engraving of projectiles. WIT Trans. Modell. Simul. Comput. Ballist. III 45, 193–202 (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    White, L., Siewert, J.: Final Report of the Rifling Profile Push Test. ARL-CR-593. U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    South, J., Yiournas, A., Wagner, J., Brown, J., Kaste, R.: A Study of the Engraving of the M855 5.56-mm Projectile. ARL-TR-4743. U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sequard–Base, J., Haas, R., Tomastik, C., Vernes, A., Franek, F.: Barrel friction in sport rifles. Tribol. Lett. 66, 3 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wu, B., Zheng, J., Tian, Q.T., Zou, Z.Q., Chen, X.L., Zhang, K.S.: Friction and wear between rotating band and gun barrel during engraving process. Wear 318(1–2), 106–113 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Johnson, R.G., Cook, W.H.: A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. Int. Symp. Ballis. 7, 541–547 (1983)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wu, B., Zheng, J., Tian, Q.T., Zou, Z.Q., Yu, X.H., Zhang, K.S.: Tribology of rotating band and gun barrel during engraving process under quasi-static and dynamic loading. Friction 2(4), 330–342 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tanner, A.B., McDowell, D.L.: Deformation, temperature and strain rate sequence experiments on OFHC Cu. Int. J. Plasticity 15, 375–399 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bhattacharyya, A., Rittel, D., Ravichandran, G.: Effect of strain rate on deformation texture in OFHC copper. Scr. Mater. 52, 657–661 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang, K., Tao, N.R., Liu, G., Lu, J., Lu, K.: Plastic strain-induced grain refinement at the nanometer scale in copper. Acta Mater. 54, 5281–5291 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Andrews, T.D.: Projectile driving band interactions with gun barrels. J. Pressure Vessel Technol. 128, 273–278 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Toivola, J., Moilanen, S., Jussila, H.R.: Force, pressure and strain measurements for traditional heavy mortar launch cycle. J. Struct. Mech. 44(4), 309–329 (2011)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Deng, S.Q., Godfrey, A., Liu, W., Zhang, C.L.: Microstructural evolution of pure copper subjected to friction sliding deformation at room temperature. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 639, 448–455 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Deng, S.Q., Godfrey, A., Liu, W., Hansen, N.: A gradient nanostructure generated in pure copper by platen friction. Scr. Mater. 117, 41–45 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringArmy Academy of Artillery and Air-defenseHefeiChina
  2. 2.Anhui Wenda University of Information EngineeringHefeiChina

Personalised recommendations