Advertisement

Tribology Letters

, 66:63 | Cite as

Stability of Metal Matrix Composite Pads During High-Speed Braking

  • Tao Peng
  • Qingzhi Yan
  • Xiaolu Zhang
Original Paper

Abstract

Metal matrix composites are now commonly used as braking pads for the train running over 250 km/h by virtue of a number of desirable properties. To develop a fundamental understanding of the stability of metallic composites at high-speed braking, four typical composite materials, with different Cu and Fe contents, were subjected to a series of high-speed emergency braking at a simulative running speed of 380 km/h and a braking inertia of 27 kg/m−2 and a normal pressure of 1.27 MPa in this paper. The results showed that the sample with higher Cu content displayed a fade COF and deteriorated wear, but the one with higher Fe content could maintain a stable COF and low wear rate. The tribological behaviour is associated with the relative rate of generation and consumption of the tribo-oxide film. For the sample with higher Cu content, the generation rate of tribo-oxide film was less than the consumption rate, and the COF fading and wear deterioration with the increasing braking times were attributed to the reduction in resistance to deform or to shear the asperities, which was thought to be caused by the degradation of near-surface layer due to the removal of protective tribo-oxide film. In contrast, for the sample with higher Fe content, the generation rate was approximately equal to the consumption rate, and a well-established tribo-oxide film on the surface was responsible for the stable friction level and low wear rates.

Keywords

Metal matrix composite pads High-speed braking Tribological behaviour Stability 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China under Contract No. 51572026 is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Natarajan, N., Vijayarangan, S., Rajendran, I.: Wear behavior of A356/25SiCp aluminum matrix composites sliding against automobile friction material. Wear 261, 812 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhou, X., Zhu, D., Xie, Q., Luo, F., Zhou, W.: Friction and wear properties of C/C–SiC braking composites. Ceram. Int. 38, 2467 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xiong, X., Chen, J., Yao, P., Li, S., Huang, B.: Friction and wear behaviors and mechanisms of Fe and SiO2 in Cu-based P/M friction materials. Wear 262, 1182 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen, B., Bi, Q., Yang, J., Xia, Y., Hao, J.: Tribological properties of solid lubricants (graphite, h-BN) for Cu-based P/M friction composites. Tribol. Int. 41, 1145 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li, G., Yan, Q.: Comparison of friction and wear behavior between C/C, C/C-SiC and metallic composite materials. Tribol. Lett. 60, 15 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li, G., Yan, Q., Xi, J., Qi, G., Yang, X.: The stability of the coefficient of friction and wear behavior of C/C–SiC. Tribol. Lett. 58, 13 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bao, J., Zhu, Z., Yin, Y., Chen, G.: Influence of initial braking velocity and braking frequency on tribological performance of non-asbestos brake shoe. Ind. Lubr. Tribol. 61, 332 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ścieszka, S.F.: Tribological phenomena in steel-composites brake materials friction pairs. Wear 64, 367 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rhee, S.K.: Wear equations for polymers sliding against metal surfaces. Wear 16, 431 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Talib, R.J., Muchtar, A., Azhari, C.H.: Microstructural characteristics on the surface and subsurface of semimetallic automotive friction materials during braking process. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 140, 694 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhu, Z., Bao, J., Yin, Y., Chen, G.: Frictional catastrophe behaviors and mechanisms of brake shoe for mine hoisters during repetitious emergency brakings. Ind. Lubr. Tribol. 65, 245 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Verma, P.C., Ciudin, R., Bonfanti, A., Aswath, P., Straffelini, G., Gialanella, S.: Role of the friction layer in the high-temperature pin-on-disc study of a brake material. Wear 346–347, 56 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Peng, T., Yan, Q., Li, G., Zhang, X., Wen, Z., Jin, X.: The braking behaviors of Cu-based metallic brake pad for high-speed train under different initial braking speed. Tribol. Lett. 65, 135 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-017-0914-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Österle, W., Urban, I.: Friction layers and friction films on PMC brake pads. Wear 257, 215 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Österle, W., Urban, I.: Third body formation on brake pads and rotors. Tribol. Int. 39, 401 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Filip, P., Weiss, Z., Rafaja, D.: On friction layer formation in polymer matrix composite materials for brake applications. Wear 252, 189 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jacko, M.G., Tsang, P.H.S., Rhee, S.K.: Wear debris compaction and friction film formation of polymer composites. Wear 133, 23 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peng, T., Yan, Q., Li, G., Zhang, X.: The influence of Cu/Fe ratio on the tribological behavior of brake friction materials. Tribol. Lett. 66, 18 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-017-0961-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Desplanques, Y., Degallaix, G.: Interactions between third-body flows and localisation phenomena during railway high-energy stop braking. SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars Mech. Syst. 1, 1267 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Godet, M.: The third-body approach: a mechanical view of wear. Wear 100, 437 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Desplanques, Y., Degallaix, G.: Genesis of the third-body at the pad-disc interface: case study of sintered metal matrix composite lining material. SAE Int. J. Mater. Manuf. 2, 25 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Haddad, H., Guessasma, M., Fortin, J.: A DEM–FEM coupling based approach simulating thermomechanical behaviour of frictional bodies with interface layer. Int. J. Solids Struct. 81, 203 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Österle, W., Dörfel, I., Prietzel, C., Rooch, H., Cristol-Bulthé, A.L., Degallaix, G., Desplanques, Y.: A comprehensive microscopic study of third body formation at the interface between a brake pad and brake disc during the final stage of a pin-on-disc test. Wear 267, 781 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rigney, D.A., Hirth, J.P.: Plastic deformation and sliding friction of metals. Wear 53, 345 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Österle, W., Kloß, H., Urban, I., Dmitriev, A.I.: Towards a better understanding of brake friction materials. Wear 263, 1189 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Österle, W., Dmitriev, A.I.: Functionality of conventional brake friction materials—perceptions from findings observed at different length scales. Wear 271, 2198 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Archard, J.F., Hirst, W.: The wear of metals under unlubricated conditions. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 236, 397 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stott, F.H.: High-temperature sliding wear of metals. Tribol. Int. 35, 489 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kato, H., Komai, K.: Tribofilm formation and mild wear by tribo-sintering of nanometer-sized oxide particles on rubbing steel surfaces. Wear 262, 36 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Blau, P.J.: Elevated-temperature tribology of metallic materials. Tribol. Int. 43, 1203 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jiang, J., Stott, F.H., Stack, M.M.: The role of triboparticles in dry sliding wear. Tribol. Int. 31, 245 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mcneill, L.S., Edwards, M.: The importance of temperature in assessing iron pipe corrosion in water distribution systems. Environ. Monit. Assess. 77, 229 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rakhshani, A.E.: Preparation, characteristics and photovoltaic properties of cuprous oxide—a review. Solid State Electron. 29, 7 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Suh, N.P., Sin, H.C.: The genesis of friction. Wear 69, 91 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations