Tribology Letters

, 66:47 | Cite as

Friction and Wear Characteristics of Single Crystal Ni-Based Superalloys at Elevated Temperatures

  • Pantcho Stoyanov
  • Lesley Dawag
  • Daniel G. Goberman
  • Dilip Shah
Original Paper


The purpose of this study was to investigate the friction and wear behavior of single crystal superalloys at elevated temperatures. Pin-on-plate experiments were conducted using a custom-built high-temperature fretting/wear apparatus. Measurements were performed on two single crystal Ni-based alloys and Waspaloy® (used as a baseline material). The coefficient of friction for the single crystal materials (i.e., during running-in and steady state) was lower compared to the Waspaloy®. In addition, the experiments showed that the friction coefficient of the single crystal is dependent on the crystallographic plane; the friction coefficient was lower for the tests on the {100} plane compared to the {111} plane. The wear behavior was aligned with the friction behavior, where the single crystal Ni-based alloys showed slightly higher wear resistance compared to the Waspaloy®. Ex situ analysis by means of FIB/SEM and XPS analysis revealed the formation of Co-base metal oxide layer on the surface of the single crystal alloy. Similarly, a Co-base oxide layer is observed on the counterface providing a self-mated oxide-on-oxide contact and thus lower friction and wear compared to the Waspaloy®.


Single crystal alloys Tribofilm Lubricious oxides 



The authors thank Dr. Agnieszka Wusatowska-Sarnek for the valuable discussions and suggestions on this topic.


  1. 1.
    Reed, R.C.: The Superalloys: Fundamentals and Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fecht, H., Furrer, D.: Processing of nickel-base superalloys for turbine engine disc applications. Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(12), 777–787 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huda, Z., Edi, P.: Materials selection in design of structures and engines of supersonic aircrafts: a review. Mater. Des. 46, 552–560 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meetham, G.W.: High-temperature materials—a general review. J. Mater. Sci. 26(4), 853–860 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kozar, R.W., Suzuki, A., Milligan, W.W., Schirra, J.J., Savage, M.F., Pollock, T.M.: Strengthening mechanisms in polycrystalline multimodal nickel-base superalloys. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 40(7), 1588–1603 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sims, C.T., Stoloff, N.S., Hagel, W.C.: Superalloys II: High-Temperature Materials for Aerospace and Industrial Power, 2nd edn. Wiley, London (1987)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pollock, T.M., Tin, S.: Nickel-based superalloys for advanced turbine engines: chemistry, microstructure, and properties. J. Propuls. Power 22(2), 361–374 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Betteridge, W., Shaw, S.W.K.: Development of superalloys. Mater. Sci. Technol. 3(9), 682–694 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Koizumi, Y., Kobayashi, T., Yokokawa, T., Zhang, J., Osawa, M., Harada, H., Aoki, Y., Arai, M.: Development of next-generation Ni-base single crystal superalloys. Superalloys 2004, 35–43 (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Caron, P., Tasadduq, K.: Evolution of Ni-based superalloys for single crystal gas turbine blade applications. Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 3(8), 513–523 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Willey, S.A.: The engines of Pratt & Whitney: a technical history. Air Power Hist. 58(1), 50–52 (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huang, X., Gibson, T.E., Zhang, M., Neu, R.W.: Fretting on the cubic face of a single-crystal Ni-base superalloy. Tribol. Int. 42, 875–885 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blau, P.J.: Elevated-temperature tribology of metallic materials. Tribol. Int. 43, 1203–1208 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Scharf, T.W., Prasad, S.V., Kotula, P.G., Michael, J.R., Robino, C.V.: Elevated temperature tribology of cobalt and tantalum-based alloys. Wear 330–331, 199–208 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Scott, F.H., Stevenson, C.W., Wood, G.C.: Friction and wear properties of Stellite 31 at temperatures from 293 to 1073 K. Met. Technol. 4(1), 66–74 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lawen, J.L., Calabrese, S.J., Dinc, O.S.: Wear resistance of super alloys at elevated temperatures. ASME. J. Tribol. 120(2), 339–344 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Biesinger, M.C., Payne, B.P., Grosvenor, A.P., Lau, L.W.M., Gerson, A.R., Smart, R.S.C.: Resolving surface chemical states in XPS analysis of first row transition metals, oxides and hydroxides: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni. Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 2717 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peterson, M.B., Florek, J.J., Lee, R.E.: Sliding characteristics of metals at high temperatures. ASLE Trans. 3, 101–109 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Viat, A., Bouchet, M.I.D.B., Vacher, B., Le Mogne, T., Fouvry, S., Henne, J.F.: Nanocrystalline glaze layer in ceramic–metallic interface under fretting wear. Surf. Coat. Technol. 308, 307–315 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Viat, A., Dreano, A., Fouvry, S., Bouchet, M.I.D.B., Henne, J.F.: Fretting wear of pure cobalt chromium and nickel to identify the distinct roles of HS25 alloying elements in high temperature glaze layer formation. Wear 376, 1043–1054 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Viat, A., Guillonneau, G., Fouvry, S., Kermouche, G., Sao Joao, S., Wehrs, J., Michler, J., Henne, J.F.: Brittle to ductile transition of tribomaterial in relation to wear response at high temperatures. Wear 392, 60–68 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Scharf, T.W., Prasad, S.V.: Solid lubricants: a review. J. Mater. Sci. 48, 511–531 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bowden, F.P., Tabor, D.: The Friction and Lubrication of Solids. Oxford University Press, New York (1950)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aouadi, S.M., Gao, H., Martini, A., Scharf, T.W., Muratore, C.: Lubricious oxide coatings for extreme temperature applications: a review. Surf. Coat. Technol. 257, 266–277 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pantcho Stoyanov
    • 1
  • Lesley Dawag
    • 1
  • Daniel G. Goberman
    • 2
  • Dilip Shah
    • 1
  1. 1.Pratt & WhitneyUnited Technologies CorporationEast HartfordUSA
  2. 2.United Technology Research CenterUnited Technologies CorporationEast HartfordUSA

Personalised recommendations