Tribology Letters

, 65:166 | Cite as

A Model for Lubricant Transfer from Media to Head During Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) Writing

Original Paper
  • 67 Downloads

Abstract

One of the challenges in heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) is the creation of write-induced head contamination at the near-field transducer. A possible mechanism for the formation of this contamination is the transfer of lubricant from the disk to the slider (lubricant pickup) due to temperature-driven evaporation/condensation and/or mechanical interactions. Here we develop a continuum model that predicts the head-to-disk lubricant transfer during HAMR writing. The model simultaneously determines the thermocapillary shear stress-driven deformation and evaporation of the lubricant film on the disk, the convection and diffusion of the vapor phase lubricant in the air bearing and the evolution of the condensed lubricant film on the slider. The model also considers molecular interactions between disk–lubricant, slider–lubricant and lubricant–lubricant in terms of disjoining pressure. We investigate the effect of media temperature, head temperature and initial lubricant thickness on the lubricant transfer process. We find that the transfer mechanism is initially largely thermally driven. The rate of slider lubricant accumulation can be significantly reduced by decreasing the media temperature. However, as the amount of lubricant accumulation increases with time, a change in the transfer mechanism occurs from thermally driven to molecular interactions driven. A similar change in transfer mechanism is predicted as the head–disk spacing is reduced. There exists a critical value of head lubricant thickness and a critical head–disk spacing at which dewetting of the disk lubricant begins, leading to enhanced pickup.

Keywords

Hard disk drives Heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) Lubricant Disjoining pressure Evaporation Contamination Smear 

References

  1. 1.
    Kryder, M., Gage, E., McDaniel, T., Challener, W., Rottmayer, R., Ju, G., Hsia, Y.T., Erden, M.: Heat assisted magnetic recording. Proc. IEEE (2008). https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2008.2004315 Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marchon, B., Guo, X.C., Pathem, B.K., Rose, F., Dai, Q., Feliss, N., Schreck, E., Reiner, J., Mosendz, O., Takano, K., Do, H., Burns, J., Saito, Y.: Head-disk interface materials issues in heat-assisted magnetic recording. IEEE Trans. Magn. (2014). https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2013.2283068 Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kiely, J.D., Jones, P.M., Yang, Y., Brand, J.L., Anaya-Dufresne, M., Fletcher, P.C., Zavaliche, F., Toivola, Y., Duda, J.C., Johnson, M.T.: Write-induced head contamination in heat-assisted magnetic recording. IEEE Trans. Magn. (2017). https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2016.2618842 Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Xiong, S., Wang, N., Smith, R., Li, D., Schreck, E., Dai, Q.: Material transfer inside head disk interface for heat assisted magnetic recording. Tribol. Lett. (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-017-0860-6 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marchon, B., Karis, T., Dai, Q., Pit, R.: A model for lubricant flow from disk to slider. IEEE Trans. Magn. (2003). https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2003.816433 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ma, Y., Liu, B.: Dominant factors in lubricant transfer and accumulation in slider-disk interface. Tribol. Lett. (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-007-9289-7 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ma, Y., Liu, B.: Lube depletion caused by thermal-desorption in heat assisted magnetic recording. IEEE Trans. Magn. (2008). https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2008.2001670 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yang, Y., Li, X., Stirniman, M., Yan, X., Huang, F., Zavaliche, F., Wang, H., Huang, J., Tang, H., Jones, P.M., Kiely, J.D., Brand, J.L.: Head disk lubricant transfer and deposition during heat-assisted magnetic recording write operations. IEEE Trans. Magn. (2015). https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2015.2434826 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wu, L.: A model for liquid transfer between two approaching gas bearing surfaces through coupled evaporation–condensation and migration dynamics. J. Appl. Phys. (2008). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2951616 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ambekar, R.P., Bogy, D.B., Dai, Q., Marchon, B.: Critical clearance and lubricant instability at the head-disk interface of a disk drive. Appl. Phys. Lett. (2008). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2837187 Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mate, C.M.: Taking a fresh look at disjoining pressure of lubricants at slider-disk interfaces. IEEE Trans. Magn. (2011). https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2010.2073691 Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Waltman, R.J., Deng, H., Wang, G.J., Zhu, H., Tyndall, G.W.: The effect of PFPE film thickness and molecular polarity on the pick-up of disk lubricant by a low-flying slider. Tribol. Lett. (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-010-9638-9 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang, Y., Polycarpou, A.A.: Lubricant transfer model at the head-disk interface in magnetic storage considering lubricant–lubricant interaction. Tribol. Lett. (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-016-0688-5 Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li, N., Meng, Y., Bogy, D.B.: Effects of PFPE lubricant properties on the critical clearance and rate of the lubricant transfer from disk surface to slider. Tribol. Lett. (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-011-9806-6 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dahl, J.B., Bogy, D.B.: Lubricant flow and evaporation model for heat-assisted magnetic recording including functional end-group effects and thin film viscosity. Tribol. Lett. (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-013-0190-2 Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wu, L.: Modelling and simulation of the lubricant depletion process induced by laser heating in heat-assisted magnetic recording system. Nanotechnology (2007). https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/18/21/215702 Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wu, L., Talke, F.E.: Modeling laser induced lubricant depletion in heat-assisted-magnetic recording systems using a multiple-layered disk structure. Microsyst. Technol. (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00542-011-1300-4 Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marchon, B., Saito, Y.: Lubricant thermodiffusion in heat assisted magnetic recording. IEEE Trans. Magn. (2012). https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2012.2194138 Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sarabi, M.S.G., Bogy, D.B.: Simulation of the performance of various PFPE lubricants under heat assisted magnetic recording conditions. Tribol. Lett. (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-014-0409-x Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mendez, A.R., Bogy, D.B.: Lubricant flow and accumulation on the sliders air-bearing surface in a hard disk drive. Tribol. Lett. (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-013-0285-9 Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oron, A., Davis, S., Bankoff, S.: Long-scale evolution of thin liquid films. Rev. Mod. Phys. (1997). https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.69.931 Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Batchelor, G.: An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1967)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Derjaguin, B.V., Churaev, N., Muller, V.: Surface Forces. Consultants Bureau. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Karis, T., Tyndall, G.: Calculation of spreading profiles for molecularly-thin films from surface energy gradients. J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. (1999). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0257(98)00167-0 Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tyndall, G., Leezenberg, P., Waltman, R., Castenada, J.: Interfacial interactions of perfluoropolyether lubricants with magnetic recording media. Tribol. Lett. (1998). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019199004170 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pit, R., Marchon, B., Meeks, S., Velidandla, V.: Formation of lubricant moguls at the head/disk interface. Tribol. Lett. (2001). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009074007241 Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Derjaguin, B., Churaev, N.: Polymolecular adsorption and capillary condensation in narrow slit pores. Prog. Surf. Sci. (1992). https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6816(92)90045-J Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Forcada, M.: Instability in a system of two interacting liquid films: formation of liquid bridges between solid surfaces. J. Chem. Phys. (1993). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.464606 Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Christenson, H.: Capillary condensation due to vander Waals attraction in wet slits. Phys. Rev. Lett. (1994). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.73.1821 Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Israelachvili, J.N.: Intermolecular and Surface Forces: Revised, 3rd edn. Academic Press, Cambridge (2011)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Karis, T., Marchon, B., Flores, V., Scarpulla, M.: Lubricant spin-off from magnetic recording disks. Tribol. Lett. (2001). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012553415639 Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Karis, T.: Lubricants for the disk drive industry. In: Rudnick, L. (ed.) Lubricant Additives: Chemistry and Applications, chap 22, p. 523584. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2009)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Carey, V.P.: Liquid–Vapor Phase-Change Phenomena, 2nd edn. Taylor and Francis Group LLC, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rosenblatt, G.M.: Evaporation from solids. In: Hannay, N. (ed.) Treatise on Solid State Chemistry, Chap. 3, vol. 6A, pp. 165–240. Plenum Press, New York (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wu, L.: Lubricant dynamics under sliding condition in disk drives. J. Appl. Phys. (2006). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2220489 Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dahl, J.B., Bogy, D.B.: Static and dynamic slider air-bearing behavior in heat-assisted magnetic recording under thermal flying height control and laser system-induced protrusion. Tribol. Lett. (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-014-0305-4 Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hirschfelder, J.O., Bird, R.B., Spotz, E.L.: The transport properties of gases and gaseous mixtures. II. Chem. Rev. (1949). https://doi.org/10.1021/cr60137a012 Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Patankar, S.: Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York (1980)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yabe, T., Aoki, T., Sakaguchi, G., Wang, P.: The compact CIP (cubic-interpolated pseudo particle) method as a general hyperbolic solver. Comput. Fluids (1991). https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-7930(91)90067-R Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Aoki, T.: Multi-dimensional advection of CIP (cubicinterpolated propagation) scheme. Comput. Fluid Dyn. J. 4(3), 279–291 (1995)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jones, P.M., Yan, X., Hohlfeld, J., Stirniman, M., Kiely, J.D., Zavaliche, F., Tang, H.H.: Laser-induced thermo-desorption of perfluoropolyether lubricant from the surface of a heat-assisted magnetic recording disk: lubricant evaporation and diffusion. Tribol. Lett. (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-015-0561-y Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lei, R.Z., Gellman, A.J., Jones, P.: Thermal stability of fomblin z and fomblin zdol thin films on amorphous hydrogenated carbon. Tribol. Lett. (2001). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016670303657 Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhou, W., Zeng, Y., Liu, B., Yu, S., Hua, W., Huang, X.: Evaporation of polydisperse perfluoropolyether lubricants in heat-assisted magnetic recording. Appl. Phys. Express (2011). https://doi.org/10.1143/APEX.4.095201 Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sarabi, S., Bogy, D.B.: Viscoelastic effects on lubricant depletion and recovery under heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) conditions. ASME Inf. Storage Process. Syst. (2016). https://doi.org/10.1115/ISPS2016-9578 Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dai, B., Leal, L.G., Redondo, A.: Disjoining pressure for nonuniform thin films. Phys. Rev. E (2008). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.78.061602 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Computer Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of California at BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations