Tribology Letters

, 61:10 | Cite as

Unlubricated Tribological Performance of Aromatic Thermosetting Polyester (ATSP) Coatings Under Different Temperature Conditions

  • Pixiang Lan
  • Jacob L. Meyer
  • James Economy
  • Andreas A. Polycarpou
Original Paper


The bearing systems in electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) require high-temperature and high-wear-resistance materials, which can improve the running life of ESPs and reduce the maintenance cost for oil wells. We report on the tribological performance of high-bearing Aromatic Thermosetting Polyester (ATSP) coatings, which were electrostatically spray-coated. ATSP coatings were tested under a sphere-on-disk configuration from room temperature to 260 °C. ATSP coatings showed “zero” wear under moderate load conditions (5 N, 70 MPa) and all temperatures and under higher loading conditions (10 N, 88 MPa) and room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the wear of the coating was mainly from burnishing of the asperity peaks of the coating. At the higher load and temperature (10 N, 260 °C), the coating failed due to cracks formed by elastic fatigue. For comparison, a commercial thermoplastic PEEK/PTFE coating was also tested under the same conditions. Unlike ATSP, PEEK/PTFE showed abrasive wear grooves and adhesive wear debris under its glass transition temperature. At temperatures higher than its glass transition temperature, PEEK/PTFE showed adhesive wear and plastic deformation.


Aromatic Thermosetting Polyester (ATSP) PEEK PTFE Wear Friction 



This research work was supported in-part by the Turbomachinery Research Consortium, an organization of major turbomachinery developers and users who have joined with the Turbomachinery Laboratory at Texas A&M University to find answers to important questions about turbomachinery performance and reliability. The ATSP samples were provided by Bita Vaezian of ATSP Innovations. The authors would also like to thank Dr. Haejune Kim for help in obtaining the SEM images.


  1. 1.
    Holmberg, K., Matthews, A.: Coatings tribology: properties, mechanisms, techniques and applications in surface engineering. Thin Solid Films 253, 173–178 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yamane, M., Stolarski, T.A., Tobe, S.: Wear and friction mechanism of PTFE reservoirs embedded into thermal sprayed metallic coatings. Wear 263, 1364–1374 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schroeder, R., Torres, F.W., Binder, C., Klein, A.N., Mello, J.D.B.: Failure mode in sliding wear of PEEK based composites. Wear 301, 717–726 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang, J., Polycarpou, A.A., Economy, J.: An improved tribological polymer-coating system for metal surfaces. Tribol. Lett. 38, 355–365 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ebert, D., Bhushan, B.: Transparent, superhydrophobic, and wear-resistant coatings on glass and polymer substrates using SiO2, ZnO, and ITO nanoparticles. Am. Chem. Soc. 28, 11391–11399 (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nunez, E.E., Polycarpou, A.A.: The effect of surface roughness on the transfer of polymer films under unlubricated testing conditions. Wear 326–327, 74–83 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Demas, N.G., Zhang, J., Polycarpou, A.A., Economy, J.: Tribological characterization of aromatic thermosetting copolyester–PTFE blends in air conditioning compressor environment. Tribol. Lett. 29, 253–258 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang, J., Demas, N.G., Polycarpou, A.A., Economy, J.: A new family of low wear, low coefficient of friction polymer blend based on polytetrafluoroethylene and an aromatic thermosetting polyester. Polym. Adv. Technol. 19, 1105–1112 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang, H., Zhou, L.Y., Eger, C., Zhang, Z.: Abrasive wear of transparent polymer coatings: considered in terms of morphology and surface modification of nanoparticles. Compos. Sci. Technol. 88, 151–157 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cannaday, M.L., Polycarpou, A.A.: Tribology of unfilled and filled polymeric surfaces in refrigerant environment for compressor applications. Tribol. Lett. 19, 249–262 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frich, D., Goranov, K., Schneggenburger, L., Economy, J.: Novel high-temperature aromatic copolyester thermosets: synthesis, characterization, and physical properties. Macromolecules 29, 7734–7739 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huang, Y., Economy, J.: Wear properties of UHMWPE/aromatic thermosetting copolyester blends in unlubricated sliding. Wear 262, 943–948 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vandevier, J.: Application of electrical submersible pumping systems in high temperature geothermal environments. GRC Trans. 33, 649–652 (2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Economy, J., Polycarpou, A.A., Meyer, J.: Polymer coating system for improved tribological performance. US Patent, 20130337183 A1, 19 Dec 2013Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yeo, S.M., Polycarpou, A.A.: Micromechanical properties of polymeric coatings. Tribol. Int. 60, 198–208 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ebnesajiad, S., Morgan, R.: Fluoropolymer Additives, pp. 37–52. Elsevier, Oxford (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Robert, L.F.: Tribological properties of polymer films and solid bodies in a vacuum environment. In: NASA Technical Memorandum 88966, California (1987)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Samad, M.A., Sinha, S.K.: Dry sliding and boundary lubrication performance of a UHMWPE/CNTs nanocomposite coating on steel substrates at elevated temperatures. Wear 270, 395–402 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Koike, H., Kida, K., Santos, E.C., Rozwadowska, J., Kashima, Y., Kanemasu, K.: Self-lubrication of PEEK polymer bearings in rolling contact fatigue under radial loads. Tribol. Int. 49, 30–38 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rae, P.J., Dattelbaum, D.M.: The properties of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) in compression. Polymer 45, 7615–7625 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D’Amore, A., Pompo, A., Nicolais, L.: Viscoelastic effects in poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) and PEEK-based composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 41, 303–325 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yeo, S.M., Polycarpou, A.A.: Fretting experiments of advanced polymeric coatings and the effect of transfer films on their tribological behavior. Tribol. Int. 79, 16–25 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lancaster, J.K.: Accelerated wear testing of PTFE composite bearing materials. Tribol. Int. 12, 65–75 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barletta, M., Lusvarghi, L., Mantini, F.P., Rubino, G.: Epoxy-based thermosetting powder coatings: surface appearance, scratch adhesion and wear resistance. Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 7479–7504 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Barletta, M.: Dry sliding wear response of some industrial powder coatings. Tribol. Int. 44, 1236–1250 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pelletier, H., Mendibide, C., Riche, A.: Mechanical characterization of polymeric films using depth-sensing instrument: correlation between viscoelastic-plastic properties and scratch resistance. Prog. Org. Coat. 62, 162–178 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang, G., Liao, H., Li, H., Mateus, C., Bordes, J.M., Coddet, C.: On dry sliding friction and wear behavior of PEEK and PEEK/SiC-composite coatings. Wear 260, 594–600 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pixiang Lan
    • 1
  • Jacob L. Meyer
    • 2
  • James Economy
    • 2
  • Andreas A. Polycarpou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations