Tribology Letters

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 185–195 | Cite as

Measurement and Characterization of “Resonance Friction” at High Sliding Speeds in a Model Automotive Wet Clutch

  • Xavier Banquy
  • Daniel D. Lowrey
  • Nataly Belman
  • Younjin Min
  • Gregory Mordukhovich
  • Jacob N. Israelachvili
Original Paper

Abstract

The friction forces between various lubricated “friction materials” and sapphire disks were measured using a new “high-speed” rotating disk attachment to the surface forces apparatus (SFA). Two different clutch lubricants and two different friction materials were tested at sliding speeds and normal loads from 5 to 25 m/s, and 0.2 to 1 N (nominal pressures ~1 MPa), respectively. The results show that “resonance friction”—characterized by large amplitude oscillatory (i.e., sinusoidal) vibrations, also known as shudder or chatter—dominates dynamical considerations at high sliding speed, replacing the smooth sliding or low-amplitude stick–slip that is characteristic of low speed/low load sliding. The characteristic (rotational) speeds or frequencies at which resonance friction occurs depend only on the coupled/uncoupled mechanical resonance frequencies of the loading and friction-sensing mechanisms. In contrast, the intensity of and time to enter/exit shudder depends strongly on the lubricating oil and, to a lesser extent, on the friction material. Physical–chemical analyses of the friction materials before and after testing showed that the samples undergo primarily structural rather than chemical changes. Our results provide new fundamental insights into the resonance friction phenomenon and suggest means for its control.

Keywords

Clutch lubrication Shudder Chatter Resonance friction Wear 

References

  1. 1.
    Mate, M.: Tribology on the Small Scale. A Bottom up Approach to Friction, Lubrication, and Wear. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Friesen T: Chatter in wet brakes. SAE Tech. Pap. Ser. 831318 (1983)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ohtani H, Hartley R, Stinnett D: Prediction of anti-shudder properties of automatic transmission fluids using a modified machine. SAE Tech. Pap. Ser. 940821 (1994)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Slough, C.G., Everson, M.P., Jaklevic, R.C., Melotik, D.J., Shen, W.D.: Clutch shudder correlated to ATF degradation through local friction vs. velocity measurements by a scanning force microscope. Tribol. Trans. 39, 609–614 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lowrey, D.D., Tasaka, K., Kindt, J., Banquy, X., Belman, N., Min, Y et al.: High speed friction measurements using a modified surface forces apparatus (SFA). Trib. Lett. 42, 117–127 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ostermeyer, G.P.: On the dynamics of the friction coefficient. Wear 254, 852–858 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ohkawa, S.: Wet clutches and wet brakes for construction equipment and industrial machines. Jpn. J. Tribol. 39, 1439–1450 (1994)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Murakami Y: Anti-shudder property of automatic transmission fluids—A study by the international lubricant standardization and approval committee (ILSAC) ATC committee. SAE Tech. Pap. Ser. 2000-01-1870 (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rodgers, J., Haviland, M.: Friction of transmission clutch materials as affected by fluids, additives, and oxydation. SAE Tech. Pap. Ser. 194A 600178 (1960)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Watts, R., Nibert, R.: Prediction of low speed clutch shudder in automatic transmissions using the low velocity friction apparatus. In: 7th International Colloquium Tribology, Esslingen, Germany (1990)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Israelachvili, J.N., Min, Y., Akbulut, M., Alig, A., Carver, G., Greene, W., et al.: Recent advances in the surface forces apparatus (SFA) technique. Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 036601 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Israelachvili, J.N.: Measurement and relation between the dynamic and static interactions between surfaces separated by thin liquid and polymer-films. Pure Appl. Chem. 60, 1473–1478 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bijwe, J.: Composites as friction materials: Recent developments in non-asbestos fiber reinforced friction materials—A review. Polym. Compos. 18, 378–396 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kitahara, S., Matsumoto, T.: Present and future trends in wet friction materials. Jpn. J. Tribol. 39, 1451–1459 (1994)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cavdar, B., Lam, R.C.: Wet clutch performance in a mineral-based and in a partial-synthetic-based automatic transmission fluid. Tribol. Trans. 41, 160–169 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ingram, M., Spikes, H., Noles, J., Watts, R.: Contact properties of a wet clutch friction material. Tribol. Int. 43, 815–821 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Otani, C., Kimura, Y.: Analysis of the real contact area of a paper-based wet friction material. Jpn. J. Tribol. 39, 1487–1494 (1994)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xavier Banquy
    • 1
  • Daniel D. Lowrey
    • 2
  • Nataly Belman
    • 1
  • Younjin Min
    • 1
  • Gregory Mordukhovich
    • 3
  • Jacob N. Israelachvili
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Materials DepartmentUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  3. 3.Research & DevelopmentGeneral Motors CompanyWarrenUSA

Personalised recommendations