This study has investigated potential links between tribological performance and the morphology of tribofilms formed from anti-wear additives with application to metal V-belt pushing type continuously variable transmission fluids (B-CVTFs). The influence of metal–metal tribological properties of anti-wear additives was evaluated using a ball on plate tribometer, enabling friction and lubricant film formation to be monitored during reciprocating tests. Contact mode atomic force microscopy was utilised to investigate the nature of tribofilms at the nanometre scale. As a result, an additive formulation composed of hydrogen phosphite and over-based calcium sulphonate in a hydro-cracked mineral Group II base oil demonstrated a synergism with 8% higher friction coefficient and more stable film formation than the individual additive cases, providing a positive outcome for a B-CVTF. Tribofilm species produced by a chemical reaction between hydrogen phosphite and over-based calcium sulphonate were densely deposited on the wear scar to form a rougher surface, which may explain the higher friction observed.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Murakami, Y.: Half a century of automatic transmissions for vehicles. J. Jpn Soc. Tribol. 50–9, 665–670 (2005)
Caines, A.J., Haycock, R.F., Hillier, J.E.: Other lubricants for road vehicles. Automotive Lubricants Reference Book, 2nd edn, Chap. 7, pp. 277–294, Professional Engineering Publishing, London, ISBN 1-86058-471-3 (2004)
Mitsui, H.: Trends and requirements of fluids for metal pushing belt type CVTs. J. Jpn Soc. Tribol. 45–6, 13–18 (2000)
Narita, K., Priest, M.: Metal-metal friction characteristics and the transmission efficiency of a metal V-belt type continuously variable transmission. Proc. Instn Mech. Eng. J: J. Eng. Tribol. 221(J1), 11–26 (2007)
Spikes, H.A.: History and mechanism of ZDDP. Tribol. Lett. 17–3, 469–489 (2004)
Fujita, H., Spikes, H.A.: The formation of zinc dithioophosphate antiwear film. Proc. Instn Mech. Eng. J: J. Eng. Tribol. 218, 265–277 (2004)
Bec, S., Tonck, A., Georges, J.M., Coy, R.C., Bell, J.C., Roper, G.W.: Relationship between mechanical properties and structures of Zinc dithiophosphate anti-wear films. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A455, 4181–4203 (1999)
Yin, Z., Kasrai, M., Fuller, M., Bancroft, G.M., Fyfe, K., Colainanni, M.L., Tan, K.H.: Application of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in chemical characterization of antiwear films generated by ZDDP Part 1: the effects of physical parameters. Wear 202, 172–191 (1997)
Martin, J.M., Grossiord, C., Monge, T.L., Bec, S., Tonck, A.: The two-layer structure of Zndtp tribofilms. Part 1: AES, XPS and XANES analyses. Tribol. Int. 34, 523–530 (2001)
Bennet, P.A.: A surface effect associated with the use of oils contacting zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. ASLE Trans. 2, 78–90 (1959)
Taylor, L., Spikes, H.A.: Friction-enhancing properties of ZDDP antiwear additive: Part 1—friction and morphology of ZDDP reaction films. Tribol. Trans. 46–3, 303–309 (2003)
Wada, H., Iwanami, I.: Xanes study on boundary lubrication films generated from belt-drive continuously variable transmission fluids. International Tribology Conference Kobe 2005 Book of Abstracts, Japanese Society of Tribologist, p. 319, ISBN 4-9900139-7-2 (2005)
Pidduck, A.J., Smith, G.C.: Scanning probe microscopy of automotive anti-wear films. Wear 212, 254–264 (1997)
Warren, O.L., Graham, J.F., Norton, P.R., Houston, J.E., Michalske, T.A.: Nanomechanical properties of films derived from zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Tribol. Lett. 4, 189–198 (1998)
Graham, J.F., McCague, C., Norton, P.R.: Topography and nanomechanical properties of tribochemical films derived from zinc dialkyl and diaryl dithiophosphates. Tribol. Lett. 6, 149–157 (1999)
Aktary, M., McDermott, M.T., McAlpine, G.A.: Morphology and nanomechanical properties of ZnDTP antiwear films as a function of tribological contact time. Tribol. Lett. 12–3, 155–162 (2002)
Topolovec Miklozic, K., Spikes, H.A.: Application of atomic force microscopy to the study of lubricant additive films. J. Tribol. 127, 405–415 (2005)
Demmou, K., Bec, S., Loubet, J.-L., Martin, J.M.: Temperature effects on mechanical properties of zinc dithiophosphate tribofilms. Tribol. Int. 39, 1558–1563 (2006)
Narita, K., Priest, M.: Boundary lubrication film formation from belt type CVT fluids. IPDS2006 Integrated Powertrain & Driveline Systems 2006, pp. 39–49. Woodhead Publishing in Mechanical Engineering, London (2006)
Furey, M.J.: Metallic contact and friction between sliding surfaces. ASLE Trans. 4, 1–11 (1961)
ILSAC.: ILSAC GF4 Standard for passenger Car Engine Oils. 14th January 2004
Rounds, F.G.: Additive interactions and their effect on the performance of a Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. ASLE Trans. 21–2, 91–101 (1978)
Topolovec, K., Forbus, T.R., Spikes, H.A.: The film-forming and friction properties of overbased calcium sulphonate detergents. Additives 2007 Applications for Future Transport Book of Abstracts, Royal Society of Chemistry, London, Abstract O6 (2007)
Handbook of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, JOEL (1991)
Fujihira, M., Akiyama, M.: Friction force microscope: Fundamentals and applications. J. Jpn Soc. Tribol. 51–10, 731–735 (2006)
About this article
Cite this article
Narita, K., Priest, M. Friction Characteristics and Topography of Tribofilms from Anti-Wear Additives Applied to Metal V-Belt Type CVT Fluids. Tribol Lett 35, 45–56 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-009-9432-8
- Belt CVT
- Continuously variable transmission
- Anti-wear additives
- Boundary lubrication