Friction and lubrication of human skin

The in vivo friction of human skin has been measured in the dry, wet and damp states using smooth glass and polypropylene spherically tipped probes. They were selected to be representative of hydrophilic and hydrophobic countersurfaces. The data are interpreted using the adhesion model of friction, which provides an explanation for the influence of the normal load and the surface free energies of the probe materials on the frictional characteristics of the skin. In particular, explanations based on this model are given for the tendency of wet skin to exhibit stick-slip motion and of damp skin to exhibit a peak frictional force against a glass probe.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.

References

  1. 1.

    K.L. Johnson, in: The Independent (Independent News and Media, London, 31st December 2005)

  2. 2.

    J.E. Field, in: The Guardian (Guardian Media Group, London, 19th January 2006)

  3. 3.

    Briscoe B.J., Hutchings I.M. (2006) Trib. Int. 39:591

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Special Issue, David Tabor Festschrift, eds. J.E. Field and A.D. Yoffe Phil. Mag. A 43(3) (1981)

  5. 5.

    Greenwood J.A., D. Tabor (1958) Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 71:989

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Cohen S.C., Tabor D. (1966) Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 291: 186

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Eldredge K.R., Tabor D. (1955) Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 229:181

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Holbrook K.A., Odland G.F. (1974) J. Invest. Dermatol. 62:415

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Fawcett D. (1986) Text Book of Histology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    D. Dowson, in: Bioengineering of the Skin: Skin Surface Imaging and Analysis, eds. K.-P. Wilhelm et al. (CRC Press, New York, 1997), ch. 2

  11. 11.

    Sivamani R.K., Goodman J., Gitis N.V., Maibach H.I. (2003) Skin Res. Technol. 9:227

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Sivamani R.K., Wu G., Gitis N.V., Maibach H.I. (2005) Cosmet. Toiletries 120(9):48

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Gitis N., Sivamani R. (2004) Trib. Trans. 47:461

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Asserin J., Zahouani H., Ph. Humbert, Couturaud V., Mougin D. (2000) Coll. Surf. B: Biointerf. 19:1

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Sivamani R.K., Goodman J., Gitis N.V., Maibach H.I. (2003) Skin Res. Technol. 9:235

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Wolfram L.J. (1983) J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 34: 465

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    S.A. Johnson, D.M. Gorman, M.J. Adams and B.J. Briscoe, in: Thin Films in Tribology. Proceedings of the 19th Leeds/Lyon Symposium on Tribology, eds. D. Dowson et al. (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1993), p. 663

  18. 18.

    Highley D.R., Coomey M., DenBeste M., Wolfram L.J. (1977) J. Invest. Dermatol. 69:303

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    M.J. Adams, D.M. Gorman, S.A. Johnson and B.J. Briscoe, in: Supramolecular and Colloidal Structures in Biomaterials and Biosubstrates, eds. M. Lal et al. (Imperial College Press-The Royal Society, London, 2000), p. 277

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Bowden F.P., Tabor D. (1954) Friction and Lubrication of Solids. Oxford University Press, London

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Archard J.F. (1957) Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 243:190

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Adams M.J., Briscoe B.J., Law J.Y.C., Luckham P.F., Williams D.R. (2001) Langmuir 17:6953

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    B.J. Briscoe, A. Arvanitaki, M.J. Adams and S.A. Johnson, in: Tribology Research: From Model Experiment to Industrial Problem: A Century of Efforts in Mechanics, Materials Science and Physico-Chemistry. Proceedings of the 27th Leeds/Lyon Symposium on Tribology, eds. G. Dalmaz et al. (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 2001), p. 661

  24. 24.

    Johnson K.L. (1985) Contact Mechanics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Briscoe B.J., Tabor D. (1975) Wear 34:29

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    B.J. Briscoe and A.C. Smith, in: Reviews on the Deformation Behaviour of Materials, Vol. 3(3), ed. P. Feltham (Scientific Publications, Israel, 1980), p. 152

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    B.J. Briscoe, in: Adhesion V, ed. K.W. Allen (Applied Science, London, 1981), p. 49

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Elkhyat A., Courderot-Masuyer C., Gharbi T., Humbert P. (2004) Skin Res. Technol. 10:215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Pooley C.M., Tabor D. (1972) Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 329:251

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Briscoe B.J., Stolarski T.A. (1981) Trans. ASME J. Lubr. Technol. 103:503

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Briscoe B.J., Tabor D. (1978) J. Adhesion 9:145

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Greenwood J.A., Williamson J.B.P. (1966) Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 295:300

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Greenwood J.A., Tripp J.H.. (1967) Trans. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 34:153

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Dussaud A.D., Adler P.M., Lips A. (2003) Langmuir 19:7341

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    M.J. Adams, B.J. Briscoe and S.L. Kremnitzer, in: Microscopic Aspects of Adhesion and Lubrication, ed. J.M. George (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1982), p. 405

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Fuller K.N.G., Tabor D. (1975) Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 345:327

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Middleton J.D. (1968) Br. J. Derm. 80:437

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Potts R.O. (1986) J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 37:9

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Kasting G.B., Barai N.D. (2003) J. Pharm. Sci. 92:1624

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Anathapadmanabhan K.P., Lips A., Vincent C., Meyer F., Caso S., Johnson A., Subramanyan K., Vethamuthu M., Rattinger G., Moore D.J. (2003) Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 25:103

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Park A.C., Baddiel C.B. (1972) J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 23:3

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Park A.C., Baddiel C.B. (1972) J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 23:471

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Yuan Y., Verma R. (2006) Coll. Surf. B: Biointerf. 48:6

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Johnson K.L., Kendall K., Roberts A.D. (1971) Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 324:301

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Roberts A.D., Tabor D. (1971) Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 325:323

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    M.J. Adams, B.J. Briscoe and L. Pope, in: Tribology in Particulate Technology, eds. B.J. Briscoe and M.J. Adams (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1987), p. 8

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Adams M.J., McKeown R., Whall A. (1997) J. Phys. D 30:912

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Amuzu J.K.A. (1984) J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 3:291

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    El-Shimi A.F. (1977) J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28:37

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Nacht S., J.-A. Close, Young D., Gans E.H. (1981) J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 32:55

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Dowson D., Higginson G.R. (1966) Elasto-hydrodynamic Lubrication Pergamon Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    S.A. Johnson, M.J. Adams and A. Arvanitaki and B.J. Briscoe, in: Elastohydrodynamics-’96: Fundamentals and Applications in Lubrication and Traction. Proceedings of the 23rd Leeds/Lyon Symposium on Tribology, eds. D. Dowson et al. (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1997), p. 199

  53. 53.

    Hamrock B.J., Dowson D. (1978) Trans. ASME J. Lubr. Technol. 100:236

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    J. de Vicente, J.R. Stokes and H.A. Spikes, Trib. Lett. 20 (2005) 273; Food Hydrocolloids 20 (2006) 483

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Williams J.A. (1994) Engineering Tribology. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Zheng Y., Mak A.F.T. (1999) IEEE Trans. Rehab. Eng. 7:257

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    C. Pailler-Mattéi and H. Zahouani, J. Adhesion Sci. Technol. 18 (2004) 1739; Trib. Int. 39 (2006) 12

  58. 58.

    Hendriks F.M., Brokken D., van Eemeren J.T.W.M., Oomens C.W.J., Baaijens F.P.T., Horsten J.B.A.M. (2003) Skin Res. Technol. 9:274

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Richards S.C., Roberts A.D. (1994) J. Nat. Rubb. Res. 9:190

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Roberts A.D. (1971) J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 4:433

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. J. Adams.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Adams, M.J., Briscoe, B.J. & Johnson, S.A. Friction and lubrication of human skin. Tribol Lett 26, 239–253 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-007-9206-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • biotribology
  • friction mechanisms
  • contact mechanics
  • low elastic modulus EHL
  • stick-slip