The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonuclease 9 (Cas9) system is being rapidly developed for mutagenesis in higher plants. Ideally, foreign DNA introduced by this system is removed in the breeding of edible crops and vegetables. Here, we report an efficient generation of Cas9-free mutants lacking an allergenic gene, Gly m Bd 30K, using biolistic transformation and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Five transgenic embryo lines were selected on the basis of hygromycin resistance. Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis detected only two different mutations in e all of the lines. These results indicate that mutations were induced in the target gene immediately after the delivery of the exogenous gene into the embryo cells. Soybean plantlets (T0 plants) were regenerated from two of the transgenic embryo lines. The segregation pattern of the Cas9 gene in the T1 generation, which included Cas9-free plants, revealed that a single copy number of transgene was integrated in both lines. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that no Gly m Bd 30K protein accumulated in the Cas9-free plants. Gene expression analysis indicated that nonsense mRNA decay might have occurred in mature mutant seeds. Due to the efficient induction of inheritable mutations and the low integrated transgene copy number in the T0 plants, we could remove foreign DNA easily by genetic segregation in the T1 generation. Our results demonstrate that biolistic transformation of soybean embryos is useful for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated site-directed mutagenesis of soybean for human consumption.
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The dataset supporting this study is included within the manuscript and its additional files. The expression vector p30K-hyg developed in this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
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We thank Professor H. Puchta (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) for permission to use plasmid DNA of pEn-Chimera and pDe-CAS9, and M. Suzuki, S. Noguchi, and Y. Kitsui (Hokkaido University), and J. Kamiya (National Agricultural and Food Research Organization) for technical assistance of plant transformation and tissue culture.
This work was supported by funds from the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan [the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP)] for TY.
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Adachi, K., Hirose, A., Kanazashi, Y. et al. Site-directed mutagenesis by biolistic transformation efficiently generates inheritable mutations in a targeted locus in soybean somatic embryos and transgene-free descendants in the T1 generation. Transgenic Res 30, 77–89 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11248-020-00229-4