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Table 1 Biopesticide products and genetically modified (GM) crops utilizing Pseudomonas spp. (Only naturally occurring strains of Pseudomonas spp. are reported) or a related species as the donor source

From: Safety of Pseudomonas chlororaphis as a gene source for genetically modified crops

Species (strain) Date first approveda Product names Use in agriculture
Pseudomonas syringae strains ESC-10 and ESC-11 1990 and 1996 (US-EPA) Bio-Save® 10 LP and Bio-Save® 11 LP Biopesticide—post-harvest fungicide to prevent contamination of stored fruits and potato (US-EPA 1999b, 2001a, 2009b)
Pseudomonas fluorescens strain A506 1992 (US-EPA) FrostBan™ Biopesticide—provides protection from frost and suppresses bacterial pathogens (US-EPA 1992b)
Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain Tx-1 1999 (US-EPA) Bio-Ject® Spot-Less™ Biopesticide—foliar treatment for fungal pathogens on golf course turf (US-EPA 1999a, 2000)
Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 63-28 2001(US-EPA) AtEze™ Biopesticide—protection against fungal pathogens in greenhouse ornamentals and vegetables (US-EPA 2001b, 2001d)
Pseudomonas sp. strain DSMZ 13134; closely related to P. fluorescens) 2012 (EFSA) Proradix® Biopesticide—protection against fungal diseases in vegetables and flowers (Buddrus-Schiemann et al. 2010; EFSA 2012)
Pseudomonas fluorescens strain D7 2014 (EPA) D7® Biopesticide—suppression of certain invasive grass species (US-EPA 2014)
Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain MA 342 2016 (EFSA) Cedomon® and Cerall® Biopesticide—protection against fungal pathogens on cereals (EFSA 2017)
Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain AFS009 2017 (EPA) Howler™, Howler™ Technical, and Howler™ T&O Biopesticide—fungicide for turf and ornamental plants (AgBiome 2017; US-EPA 2017a)
Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain G65 1995 (USDA) Event 8338 tomatoes; OECD Unique Identifier CGN-89322-3 Gene donor for GM crop—Accd gene encodes the 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (ACCd) enzyme which reduces ethylene production and delays ripening (USDA-APHIS 1995).
Pseudomonas fluorescens strain A32 2013 (USDA) Soybean event FG72; OECD Unique Identifier MST-FGØ72-2 Gene donor for GM crop—Source of recombinant DNA for GM crop; confers tolerance to isoxaflutole (IFT) herbicides when expressed in plants (USDA-APHIS 2013)
Delftia acidovorans (formerly classified as Pseudomonas acidovorans) 2014 (USDA) OECD Unique Identifier DAS-68416-4 Gene donor for GM crop—Source of recombinant DNA for GM crop—confers tolerance to aryloxyalkanoate herbicides when expressed in plants (USDA-APHIS 2014b)
2014 (USDA) OECD Unique Identifier DAS-44406-6 Gene donor for GM crop—Source of recombinant DNA for GM crop—confers tolerance to aryloxyalkanoate herbicides when expressed in plants (USDA-APHIS 2014a)
2015 (USDA) OECD Unique Identifiers DAS-81910-7 Gene donor for GM crop—Source of recombinant DNA for GM crop—confers tolerance to aryloxyalkanoate herbicides when expressed in plants (USDA-APHIS 2015)
  1. aUS-EPA date indicates date first registered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA 2017b); EFSA date indicates date first approved by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA 2012, 2017); USDA date indicates date deregulated by US Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS 2017)