, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 409–425 | Cite as

Expert Moral Intuition and Its Development: A Guide to the Debate

  • Michael LacewingEmail author


In this article, I provide a guide to some current thinking in empirical moral psychology on the nature of moral intuitions, focusing on the theories of Haidt and Narvaez. Their debate connects to philosophical discussions of virtue theory and the role of emotions in moral epistemology. After identifying difficulties attending the current debate around the relation between intuitions and reasoning, I focus on the question of the development of intuitions. I discuss how intuitions could be shaped into moral expertise, outlining Haidt’s emphasis on innate factors and Narvaez’s account in terms of a social-cognitive model of personality. After a brief discussion of moral relativism, I consider the implications of the account of moral expertise for our understanding of the relation between moral intuitions and reason. I argue that a strong connection can be made if we adopt a broad conception of reason and a narrow conception of expertise.


Intuition Expertise Development Virtue Haidt Narvaez 


  1. Abernathy CM, Hamm RM (1995) Surgical intuition. Hanley & Belfus, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen SM, Chen S (2002) The relational self: an interpersonal social-cognitive theory. Psychol Rev 109:619–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen SM, Thorpe JS (2009) An IF–THEN theory of personality: significant others and the relational self. J Res Pers 43(2):163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson SW, Bechara A, Damasio H, Tranel D, Damasio AR (1999) Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex. Nat Neurosci 2:1032–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Annas J (2011) Intelligent virtue. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Badhwar N (2008) Is realism really bad for you? A realistic response. J Philos 105:85–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bargh JA, Chartrand TL (1999) The unbearable automaticity of being. Am Psychol 54:462–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bargh JA, Lombardi WJ, Higgins ET (1988) Automaticity of person × situation effects on impression formation: it’s just a matter of time. J Pers Soc Psychol 55:599–605Google Scholar
  9. Berlin I (2001) My intellectual path. In: Hardy H (ed) The power of ideas. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  10. Blair RJR (1995) A cognitive developmental approach to morality: investigating the psychopath. Cognition 57:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blair RJR (1997) Moral reasoning and the child with psychopathic tendencies. Pers Individ Differ 26:731–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blair RJR (2007) The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and psychopathy. Trends Cogn Sci 11:387–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boehm C (1999) Hierarchy in the forest: the evolution of egalitarian behavior. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  14. Boehm C (2012) Moral origins: the evolution of virtue, altruism, and shame. Basic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Bouchard TJ Jr (2004) Genetic influence on human psychological traits: a survey. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 13(4):148–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cantor N (1990) From thought to behaviour: “having” and “doing” in the study of personality and cognition. Am Psychol 45:735–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cassidy J, Shaver PR (eds) (1999) Handbook of attachment: theory, research and clinical applications. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Cervone D, Shoda Y (1999) Social-cognitive theories and the coherence of personality. In: Cervone D, Shoda Y (eds) The coherence of personality. Guilford, New York, pp 3–36Google Scholar
  19. Chaiken S, Trope Y (eds) (1999) Dual process theories in social psychology. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen S, Chaiken S (1999) The heuristic-systematic model in its broader context. In: Chaiken S, Trope Y (eds) Dual process theories in social psychology. Guilford, New York, pp 73–96Google Scholar
  21. Ciancolo AT, Matthew C, Sternberg RJ, Wagner RK (2006) Tacit knowledge, practical intelligence and expertise. In: Ericsson KA, Charness N, Feltovich PJ, Hoffman RR (eds) The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 613–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cosmides L, Tooby J (2004) Knowing thyself: the evolutionary psychology of moral reasoning and moral sentiments. In: Freeman RE, Werhane P (eds) The Ruffin Series in Business Ethics, vol 4. Business, Science, and Ethics. Society for Business Ethics, Charlottesville, VA, pp 93–128Google Scholar
  23. Cramer P (2006) Protecting the self: defense mechanisms in action. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Damasio A (1994) Descartes’ error. Putnam, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Damasio A (1999) The feeling of what happens. Harcourt and Brace, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. de Waal F (1982) Chimpanzee politics: power and sex among apes. Jonathan Cape, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. DeVries R, Zan B (1994) Moral classrooms, moral children: creating a constructivist atmosphere in early education. Teachers College Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Dijksterhuis A (2010) Automaticity and the unconscious. In: Fiske S, Gilbert D, Lindzey G (eds) Handbook of social psychology, vol I, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 228–267Google Scholar
  29. Ditto PH, Pizarro DA, Tannenbaum D (2009) Motivated moral reasoning. In: Bartels DM, Bauman CW, Skitka LJ, Medin DL (eds) The psychology of learning and motivation, vol 50. Academic Press, Burlington, pp 307–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dreyfus HL, Dreyfus SE (1990) What is moral maturity? a phenomenological account of the development of ethical expertise. In: Rasmussen D (ed) Universalism vs. communitarianism, MIT Press, Boston, pp 237–264Google Scholar
  31. Dupre J (2001) Human nature and the limits of science. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ericsson KA, Smith J (1991) Toward a general theory of expertise. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Feltovich PJ, Prietula MJ, Ericsson KA (2006) Studies of expertise from psychological perspectives. In: Ericsson KA, Charness N, Feltovich PJ, Hoffman RR (eds) The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 41–68Google Scholar
  34. Feshbach ND (1989) Empathy training and prosocial behavior. In: Grobel J, Hinde RA (eds) Aggression and war: their biological and social bases. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 101–111Google Scholar
  35. Fiske AP (1991) Structures of social life. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Foot P (2001) Natural goodness. Clarendon Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frankish K (2009) Systems and levels. In: Evans J, Frankish K (eds) Dual-system theories and the personal subpersonal distinction. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 89–107Google Scholar
  38. Frensch PA (1998) One concept, multiple meanings: on how to define the concept of implicit learning. In: Stadler MA, Frensch PA (eds) Handbook of implicit learning. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 47–104Google Scholar
  39. Fry DP, Souillac G (2013) The relevance of nomadic forager studies to moral foundations theory: moral education and global ethics in the twenty-first century. J Moral Educ 42(3):346–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gardner S (2000) Psychoanalysis and the personal/sub-personal distinction. Philos Explor 3(1):96–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gawronski B (2004) Theory-based bias correction in dispositional inference: the fundamental attribution error is dead, long live the correspondence bias. Eur Rev Soc Psychol 15:183–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gazzaniga MS (1985) The social brain. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Gigerenzer G (2008) Moral intuition = fast and frugal heuristics? In: Sinnott-Armstrong W (ed) Moral psychology, vol 2. The cognitive science of morality: intuition and diversity. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  44. Glaser J, Kihlstrom JF (2005) Compensatory automaticity: unconscious volition is not an oxymoron. In: Hassin RR, Uleman JS, Bargh JA (eds) The new unconscious. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 171–195Google Scholar
  45. Goldie P (2007) Seeing what is the kind thing to do. Dialectica 61(3):347–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gollwitzer PM, Bayer UC, McCulloch KC (2005) The control of the unwanted. In: Hassin RR, Uleman JS, Bargh JA (eds) The new unconscious. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 485–515Google Scholar
  47. Graham J, Haidt J, Koleva S, Motyl M, Iyer R, Wojcik SP, Ditto PH (2013) Moral foundations theory: the pragmatic validity of moral pluralism. In: Devine P, Plant A (eds) Advances in experimental social psychology, vol 47. Academic Press, Burlington, pp 55–130Google Scholar
  48. Greene JD, Sommerville RB, Nystrom LE, Darley JM, Cohen JD (2001) An fMRI study of emotional engagement in moral judgment. Science 293:2105–2108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Greenspan SI, Shanker SI (2004) The first idea. Da Capo Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  50. Haidt J (2001) The emotional dog and its rational tail: a social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychol Rev 108(4):814–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Haidt J (2006) The happiness hypothesis. Arrow Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Haidt J (2010) Moral psychology must not be based on faith and hope: commentary on narvaez (2010). Perspect Psychol Sci 5(2):182–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Haidt J (2012) The righteous mind. Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  54. Haidt J, Bjorklund F (2008) Social intuitionists answer six questions about moral psychology. In: Sinnott-Armstrong WA (ed) Moral psychology, vol 2. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 181–217Google Scholar
  55. Haidt J, Hersh MA (2001) Sexual morality: the cultures and reasons of liberals and conservatives. J Appl Soc Psychol 31:191–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Haidt J, Joseph C (2007) The moral mind: how 5 sets of innate moral intuitions guide the development of many culture-specific virtues, and perhaps even modules. In: Carruthers P, Laurence S, Stich S (eds) The innate mind, vol 3. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 367–391Google Scholar
  57. Haidt J, Kesebir S (2010) Morality. In: Fiske S, Gilbert D, Lindzey G (eds) Handbook of social psychology, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 797–832Google Scholar
  58. Haidt J, Graham J, Joseph C (2009) Above and below left–right: ideological narratives and moral foundations. Psychol Inq 20(2–3):110–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hamlin JK, Wynn K, Bloom P (2007) Social evaluation by preverbal infants. Nature 450:557–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hammond KR (2000) Judgments under stress. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Harman G, Mason K, Sinnott-Armstrong W (2010) Moral reasoning. In: Doris J et al (eds) The moral psychology handbook. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Hassin RR, Uleman JS, Bargh JA (eds) (2005) The new unconscious. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  63. Hauser MD (2006) Moral minds: how nature designed our universal sense of right and wrong. Ecco Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Hauser MD, Young L, Cushman F (2008) Reviving Rawls’s linguistic analogy: operative principles and the causal structure of moral actions. In: Sinnott-Armstrong W (ed) Moral psychology, vol 2. The cognitive science of morality: intuition and diversity. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 107–144Google Scholar
  65. Hogarth RM (2001) Educating intuition. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  66. Huebner B (2011) Critiquing empirical moral psychology. Philos Soc Sci 41(1):50–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hursthouse R (1999) On virtue ethics. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  68. Jacobson D (2005) Seeing by feeling: virtues, skills, and moral perception. Ethical Theory Moral Pract 8:387–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Johnson KE, Mervis CB (1997) Effects of varying levels of expertise on the basic level of categorization. J Exp Psychol Gen 126:248–277Google Scholar
  70. Juarrero A (1999) Dynamics in action: intentional behavior as a complex system. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  71. Keil FC, Wilson RA (2000) Explaining explanations. In: Keil FC, Wilson RA (eds) Explanation and cognition. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  72. Kennett J, Fine C (2009) Will the real moral judgment please stand up? Ethical Theory Moral Pract 12(1):77–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kiehl KA (2006) A cognitive neuroscience perspective on psychopathy: evidence for paralimbic system dysfunction. Psychiatry Res 142:107–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Klinger E (1978) Modes of normal conscious flow. In: Pope KS, Singer JL (eds) The stream of consciousness: scientific investigations into the flow of human experience. Plenum, New York, pp 225–258Google Scholar
  75. Kochanska G (1997) Multiple pathways to conscience for children with different temperaments: from toddlerhood to age 5. Dev Psychol 33:228–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Koenigs M, Young L, Adolphs R, Tranel D, Cushman F, Hauser M, Damasio A (2007) Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgments. Nature 446:865–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kuhn D (1991) The skills of argument. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kunda Z (1990) The case for motivated reasoning. Psychol Bull 108(3):480–498Google Scholar
  79. Kunda Z, Spencer SJ (2003) When do stereotypes come to mind and when do they color judgment? A goal-based theoretical framework for stereotype activation and application. Psychol Bull 129(4):522–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lacewing M (2014) Emotion and the virtues of self-understanding. In: Roeser S, Todd C (eds) Emotion and value. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  81. Lapsley D, Narvaez D (2004) A social-cognitive approach to the moral personality. In: Lapsley D, Narvaez D (eds) Moral development, self and identity. Erlbaum, Mahwah, pp 189–212Google Scholar
  82. Lapsley DK, Hill PL (2008) On dual processing and heuristic approaches to moral cognition. J Moral Educ 37:313–332Google Scholar
  83. Lazarus RS (1991) Cognition and motivation in emotion. Am Psychol 46:352–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lerner JS, Tetlock PE (2003) Bridging individual, interpersonal, and institutional approaches to judgment and decision making: the impact of accountability on cognitive bias. In: Schneider SL, Shanteau J (eds) Emerging perspectives on judgment and decision research. New York, Cambridge, pp 431–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lerner JS, Goldberg JH, Tetlock PE (1998) Sober second thought: the effects of accountability, anger, and authoritarianism on attributions of responsibility. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 24:563–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lewis MD (2009) Desire, dopamine, and conceptual development. In: Calkins SD, Bell MA (eds) Child development at the intersection of emotion and cognition. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp 175–199Google Scholar
  87. Lilienfeld SO, Ammirati R, Landfield K (2009) Giving debiasing away: can psychological research on correcting cognitive errors promote human welfare? Perspect Psychol Sci 4:390–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. MacLean PD (1990) The triune brain in evolution. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  89. McAdams DP (1995) What do we know when we know a person? J Pers 63(3):365–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McDowell J (1979) Virtue and reason. Monist 62:331–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McDowell J (1985) Values and secondary qualities. In: Honderich T (ed) Morality and objectivity: a tribute to J.L. Mackie. Routledge, London, pp 110–129Google Scholar
  92. Mercier H, Sperber D (2011) Why do humans reason? Arguments for an argumentative theory. Behav Brain Sci 34:57–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mikhail J (2007) Universal moral grammar: theory, evidence, and the future. Trends Cogn Sci 11:143–152Google Scholar
  94. Mischel W (1968) Personality and assessment. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  95. Mischel W, Shoda Y (1995) A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychol Rev 102:246–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Moll J, de Oliveira-Souza R, Bramati I, Grafman J (2002) Functional networks in emotional moral and nonmoral social judgments. NeuroImage 16:696–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Moll J, de Oliveira-Souza R, Eslinger PJ (2003) Morals and the human brain: a working model. NeuroReport 14:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Monteith MJ, Ashburn-Nardo L, Voils CI, Czopp AM (2002) Putting the brakes on prejudice: on the development and operation of cues for control. J Pers Soc Psychol 83:1029–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Moskowitz GB, Skurnik L, Galinsky AD (1999) The history of dual process notions, and the future of pre-conscious control. In: Chaiken S, Trope Y (eds) Dual process theories in social psychology. Guilford Press, New York, pp 12–36Google Scholar
  100. Narvaez D (1998) The influence of moral schemas on the reconstruction in eighth-graders and college students. J Educ Psychol 90:13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Narvaez D (2005) Integrative ethical education. In: Killen M, Smetana J (eds) Handbook of moral development. Erlbaum, Mahwah, pp 703–733Google Scholar
  102. Narvaez D (2008a) The social intuitionist model: some counter-intuitions. In: Sinnott-Armstrong WA (ed) Moral psychology, vol 2. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 233–240Google Scholar
  103. Narvaez D (2008b) Triune ethics: the neurobiological roots of our multiple moralities. New Ideas Psychol 26:95–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Narvaez D (2010) Moral complexity the fatal attraction of truthiness and the importance of mature moral functioning. Perspect Psychol Sci 5(2):163–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Narvaez D (2013a) Wisdom as mature moral functioning: insights from developmental psychology and neurobiology. In: Jones M, Lewis P, Reffitt K (eds) Toward human flourishing: character, practical wisdom and professional formation. Mercer University Press, MaconGoogle Scholar
  106. Narvaez D (2013b) The 99 percent—development and socialization within an evolutionary context. In: Fry D (ed) War, peace and human nature. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 341–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Narvaez D (2013c) Neurobiology and moral mindset. In: Heinrichs K, Oser F, Lovat T (eds) Handbook of moral motivation. Sense, Rotterdam, pp 323–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Narvaez D, Bock T (2014) The development of virtue. In: Nucci L, Narvaez D (eds) Handbook of moral and character education, 2nd edn. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  109. Narvaez D, Lapsley DK (2005) The psychological foundations of everyday morality and moral expertise. In: Lapsley D, Power C (eds) Character psychology and character education. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, pp 140–165Google Scholar
  110. Narvaez D, Getz I, Rest JR, Thoma S (1999) Individual moral judgment and cultural ideologies. Dev Psychol 35:478–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Narvaez D, Lapsley DK, Hagele S, Lasky B (2006) Moral chronicity and social information processing: tests of a social cognitive approach to the moral personality. J Res Pers 40:966–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Nelson EE, Panksepp J (1998) Brain substrates of infant–mother attachment: contributions of opioids, oxytocin, and norepinephrine. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 22:437–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Nickerson RS (1994) The teaching of thinking and problem solving. In: Sternberg RJ (ed) Thinking and problem solving. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 409–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Nickerson RS (1998) Confirmation bias: a ubiquitous phenomenon in many guises. Rev Gen Psychol 2(2):175–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nisbett RE, Wilson TD (1977) Telling more than we can know: verbal reports on mental processes. Psychol Rev 84:231–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Nussbaum M (1993) Non-relative virtue. In: Nussbaum M, Sen A (eds) The quality of life. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 242–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Panksepp J (1998) Affective neuroscience. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  118. Panksepp J, Panksepp JB (2000) The seven sins of evolutionary psychology. Evol Cogn 6(2):108–131Google Scholar
  119. Pascarella E, Terenzini P (1991) How college affects students. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  120. Payne B, Jacoby LL, Lambert AJ (2005) Attitudes as accessibility bias: dissociating automatic and controlled processes. In: Hassin RR, Uleman JS, Bargh JA (eds) The new unconscious. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 393–420Google Scholar
  121. Perkins DN, Farady M, Bushey B (1991) Everyday reasoning and the roots of intelligence. In: Voss JF, Perkins DN, Segal JW (eds) Informal reasoning and education. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, pp 83–105Google Scholar
  122. Pizarro DA, Bloom P (2003) The intelligence of the moral intuitions: comments on Haidt (2001). Psychol Rev 110:193–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Plous S (2003) The psychology of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination: an overview. In: Plous S (ed) Understanding prejudice and discrimination. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 3–48Google Scholar
  124. Power FC, Higgins A, Kohlberg L (1989) Kohlberg’s approach to moral education. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  125. Prinz J (2004) Gut reactions. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  126. Prinz J (2007) The emotional construction of morals. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  127. Railton P (forthcoming) The affective dog and its rational tale. EthicsGoogle Scholar
  128. Rest JR (1979) Development in judging moral issues. University of Minnesota Press, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  129. Rest JR, Narvaez D, Bebeau MJ, Thoma SJ (1999) Postconventional moral thinking: a neo-Kohlbergian approach. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJGoogle Scholar
  130. Sauer H (2011) Social intuitionism and the psychology of moral reasoning. Philos Compass 6(10):708–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Sauer H (2012) Educated intuitions. Automaticity and rationality in moral judgement. Philos Explor 15(3):255–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Schnall S, Haidt J, Clore GL, Jordan AH (2008) Disgust as embodied moral judgment. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 34:1096–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Schore A (2001) The effects of a secure attachment on right brain development, affect regulation and infant mental health. Infant Ment Health J 22:201–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Schore A (2003) Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  135. Selman RL (2003) The promotion of social awareness: powerful lessons from the partnership of developmental theory and classroom practice. Russell Sage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  136. Snow NE (2010) Virtue as social intelligence: an empirically grounded theory. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  137. Sperber D (2005) Modularity and relevance: how can a massively modular mind be flexible and context-sensitive? In: Carruthers P, Laurence S, Stich S (eds) The innate mind: structure and contents. New York, Oxford, pp 53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Stern DN (1985) The interpersonal world of the human infant. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  139. Sternberg RJ (1998) Abilities are forms of developing expertise. Educ Res 3:22–35Google Scholar
  140. Sternberg RJ (1999) Intelligence as developing expertise. Contemp Educ Psychol 24:359–375Google Scholar
  141. Taylor S, Brown J (1988) Illusion and well-being: a social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychol Bull 103:193–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Taylor S, Brown J (1994) Positive illusions and well-being revisited: separating fact from fiction. Psychol Bull 116:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Thoma SJ, Barnett R, Rest J, Narvaez D (1999) Political identity and moral judgment development using the defining issues test. Br J Soc Psychol 38:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Thompson RA (1988) Early sociopersonality development. In: Damon W, Eisenberg N (eds) Handbook of child psychology. Social, emotional, and personality development, vol 3, 5th edn. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp 25–104Google Scholar
  145. Tiberius V (2008) The reflective life. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Trope Y, Fishbach A (2005) Going beyond the motivation given: self-control and situational control over behaviour. In: Hassin RR, Uleman JS, Bargh JA (eds) The new unconscious. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 537–565Google Scholar
  147. Trout JD (2009) The empathy gap. Viking/Penguin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  148. Uleman JS, Winborne WC, Winter L, Schechter D (1986) Personality differences in spontaneous trait inferences at encoding. J Pers Soc Psychol 51:396–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Vaillant GE (1993) The wisdom of the ego. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  150. Vaillant GE (2000) Defense mechanisms. In: Kazdin A (ed) Encyclopedia of psychology, vol 2. American Psychological Press, Washington, DC, pp 454–457Google Scholar
  151. Varela F (1999) Ethical know-how. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  152. Warneken F, Tomasello M (2006) Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzees. Science 311:1301–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wegner D, Bargh J (1998) Control and automaticity in social life. In: Fiske S, Gilbert D, Lindzey G (eds) Handbook of social psychology, vol I, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 446–496Google Scholar
  154. Westen D (2007) The political brain. Public Affairs, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  155. Wheatley T, Haidt J (2005) Hypnotic disgust makes moral judgments more severe. Psychol Sci 16:780–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wiggins D (1987) Needs, values, truth. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  157. Willingham DT (2007) Critical thinking: why is it so hard to teach? Am Educ 31:8–19Google Scholar
  158. Wilson TD (2002) Strangers to ourselves: discovering the adaptive unconscious. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  159. Wright JC, Baril GL (2013) Understanding the role of dispositional and situational threat sensitivity in our moral judgments. J Moral Educ 42(3):383–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zelli A, Huesmann LR, Cervone D (1995) Social inference and individual differences in aggression: evidence for spontaneous judgements of hostility. Aggress Behav 21:405–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Heythrop CollegeLondonUK

Personalised recommendations