Topics in Catalysis

, Volume 61, Issue 9–11, pp 1163–1168 | Cite as

Insights into Ice Formation via Immersion Freezing from Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy

  • Kaitlin A. Lovering
  • Keng C. Chou
Original Paper


Ice formation is an exceedingly common phenomenon with quotidian, geological, biological, and atmospheric ramifications. Nevertheless, the nucleation and growth of ice is a poorly understood process. In environmentally relevant situations, nucleation and growth of ice often occurs on the surface of a heterogeneous phase that acts to catalyze the liquid-to-solid phase transition. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy is one of the few experimental techniques capable of accessing such buried interfaces. In this short perspective, insights into the dynamic growth of ice at solid surfaces are reviewed. Application of nonlinear optical spectroscopy to monitor ice formation is an emerging research topic. Ice formation may benefit from the presence of a solid surface. However, simple models of rigid interactions between surface and liquid must be modified to include dynamic interactions during formation and growth.


Ice nucleation Heterogeneous phases Surfaces Nonlinear optical spectroscopy 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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