Durability Evaluations and Rapid Ageing Methods in Commercial Emission Catalyst Development for Diesel, Natural Gas and Gasoline Applications

Abstract

The ageing conditions were analyzed with gasoline, diesel and natural gas (NG) catalysts to find the simplified, rapid thermal and chemical (sulfur) ageing methods for catalyst development. Rich-stoichiometric conditions prevented the deactivation of TWCs in gasoline and NG applications. Active metals and support are sintered thermally during short lean periods by increasing deactivation as a function of oxygen concentration. Air ageing for 3–10 h is an appropriate rapid ageing method for TWCs. Active regeneration conditions for DPF with a higher carbon concentration deactivated DOCs less than normal diesel exhaust conditions at 700 °C. Natural gas oxidation catalysts were sulfated in use conditions but almost complete recovery was possible above 600 °C with higher methane feeds at lean. In addition to sulfur, other chemical poisoning was also included in the rapid ageing methods by fittings to the diesel and NG field aged catalysts.

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Abbreviations

ATS:

After-treatment system

CPF:

Catalyzed particulate fliter

DOC:

Diesel oxidation catalyst

DPF:

Diesel particulate filter

EGA:

Exhaust gas ageing

EGAL:

Exhaust gas ageing-low HC

FSCR:

Filter with SCR coating

HC:

Hydrocarbons

HDD:

Heavy-duty diesel

HDLG:

Heavy-duty lean gas

HDSG:

Heavy-duty stoichiometric gas

HTx:

Hydrothermal ageing at x °C, where x = 700–900

LDD:

Light-duty diesel

LDG:

Light-duty gasoline/gas

LG:

Lean gas

LNT:

Lean NOx trap

MOC:

Methane oxidation catalyst

NG:

Natural gas

RAH2:

Rapid ageing with two parallel converters

PGM:

Platinum group metals like platinum, palladium and rhodium

PM:

Particulate matter

+S:

Sulfation

−S:

Desulfation

SCR:

Selective catalytic reduction

SV:

Space velocity, exhaust gas flow rate/catalyst volume, h−1

THC:

Total hydrocarbons

TWC:

Three-way catalyst

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Maunula, T., Kallinen, K., Savimäki, A. et al. Durability Evaluations and Rapid Ageing Methods in Commercial Emission Catalyst Development for Diesel, Natural Gas and Gasoline Applications. Top Catal 59, 1049–1053 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11244-016-0588-9

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Keywords

  • Emissions
  • Catalysts
  • Deactivation
  • TWC
  • DOC
  • SCR
  • DPF