Imaging of Formaldehyde Adsorption and Diffusion on TiO2(110)
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- Zhang, Z., Tang, M., Wang, ZT. et al. Top Catal (2015) 58: 103. doi:10.1007/s11244-014-0349-6
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Surface reactions of formaldehyde with reduced TiO2(110) surfaces have been studied using variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT). STM images taken from a same area at various temperatures clearly show that formaldehyde preferentially adsorbs on the bridge-bonded oxygen (Ob) vacancy (VO) defect sites. Bias-dependent STM images show that the STM features corresponding to both the Ti-bound CH2O and the VO-bound CH2O are positioned between the Ob row and the Ti row. While the VO-bound formaldehyde rotates at 95 K, the Ti-bound CH2O does not. The VO-bound CH2O starts to diffuse along the Ob row as –CH2– at ~170 K and starts to diffuse along the Ti row as an intact molecule at ~215 K. However, the stabilities and the configurations of the Ti-bound and VO-bound formaldehyde calculated using DFT are not in line with the experimental results. The discrepancy between the experiment and theory indicates the presence of a complex charge distribution related to the surface defects.