Topics in Catalysis

, Volume 57, Issue 14–16, pp 1287–1301 | Cite as

Electron Donation–Backdonation and the Rules of Catalytic Promotion

Original Paper

Abstract

The rules of classical and electrochemical promotion of catalysis, which allow for the prediction of the effect of electropositive and electronegative promoters on catalytic rate and selectivity on the basis of the catalytic reaction kinetics, are compared with experiment for all relevant catalytic studies during the last two decades and are used to show that the rate versus catalyst work function dependence always parallels the rate versus electron donor reactant dependence. This generalized rule is rationalized both by considering the interaction of the electric field in the effective double layer at the metal catalyst–gas interface with the electric dipoles of the adsorbed reactants and also by considering the electron donation–backdonation between the adsorbed reactants and the catalyst. This generalized promotional rule allows for promoter selection on the basis of the reaction kinetics.

Keywords

Promotion Electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC) Electron donation–backdonation Rules of promotion Effective double layer 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Work supported by the “ARISTEIA” Action of the “Operational programme of education and lifelong learning” which is co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and National Resources.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece
  2. 2.Academy of AthensAthensGreece

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