EM Heating-Stimulated Water Flooding for Medium–Heavy Oil Recovery

Abstract

We report a study of heavy oil recovery by combined water flooding and electromagnetic (EM) heating at a frequency of 2.45 GHz used in domestic microwave ovens. A mathematical model describing this process was developed. Model equations were solved, and the solution is presented in an integral form for the one-dimensional case. Experiments consisting of water injection into Bentheimer sandstone cores, either fully water saturated or containing a model heavy oil, were also conducted, with and without EM heating. Model prediction was found to be in rather good agreement with experiments. EM energy was efficiently absorbed by water and, under dynamic conditions, was transported deep into the porous medium. The amount of EM energy absorbed increases with water saturation. Oil recovery by water flooding combined with EM heating was up to \(37.0\%\) larger than for cold water flooding. These observations indicate that EM heating induces an overall improvement in the mobility ratio between the displacing water and the displaced heavy oil.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

References

  1. Abernethy, E.R.: Production increase of heavy oils by electromagnetic heating. J. Can. Pet. Technol. 15(03), 91–97 (1976)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Alboudwarej, H., Felix, J., Taylor, S., Badry, R., Bremner, C., Brough, B., Skeates, C., Baker, A., Palmer, D., Pattison, K.: Highlighting heavy oil. Oilfield Rev. 18(2), 34–53 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Alomair, O.A., Alarouj, M.A., Althenayyan, A.A., Al Saleh, A.H., Almohammad, H., Altahoo, Y., Alhaidar, Y., Al Ansari, S.E., Alshammari, Y.: Improving heavy oil recovery by unconventional thermal methods. In: SPE Kuwait International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition. SPE (2012)

  4. Bhamra, K.S.: Partial Differential Equations. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Brooks, R.H., Corey, T.: Hydraulic Properties of Porous Media. Hydrology papers of Colorado State University, Colorado (1964)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Buckley, S.E., Leverett, M.C.: Mechanism of fluid displacement in sands. Trans. AIME 146(01), 107–116 (1942)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Dindoruk, D.M., Dindoruk, B.: Analytical solution of nonisothermal buckley-leverett flow including tracers. SPE Reserv. Eval. Eng. 11(03), 555–564 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Farouq Ali, S.M.: Steam injection theories: a unified approach. Technical report (1982)

  9. Kasevich, R.S., Price, S.L., Faust, D.L., Fontaine, M.F.: Pilot testing of a radio frequency heating system for enhanced oil recovery from diatomaceous earth. In: SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. SPE (1994)

  10. LaForce, T., Ennis-King, J., Paterson, L.: Semi-analytical solutions for nonisothermal fluid injection including heat loss from the reservoir: part 1. saturation and temperature. Adv. Water Resour. 73, 227–241 (2014a)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. LaForce, T., Mijić, A., Ennis-King, J., Paterson, L.: Semi-analytical solutions for nonisothermal fluid injection including heat loss from the reservoir: part 2. pressure and stress. Adv. Water Resour. 73, 242–253 (2014b)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Lake, L.W.: Enhanced Oil Recovery. Prentice Hall Inc., Old Tappan (1989)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Landau, L.D., Lifshitz, E.M., Pitaevskii, L.P.: Electrodynamics of continuous media, vol. 8. 2nd edn. Pergamon Press, Pergamon (1984).

  14. Mata, W., Mata, A.L.: Electromagnetic heating process combined with water displacement for recovering petroleum reservoirs-a new concept. In: Canadian International Petroleum Conference. Pet. Society of Canada (2001)

  15. Polyanin, A.D.: Handbook of Linear Partial Differential Equations for Engineers and Scientists. CRC Press, London (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Sahni, A., Kumar, M., Knapp, R.B.: Electromagnetic heating methods for heavy oil reservoirs. In: SPE/AAPG Western Regional Meeting. SPE (2000)

  17. Sayakhov, F.L., Babalyan, G.A., Chistyakov, S.I.: On the high-frequency heating bottomhole zone. Neft. Khoz 12, 49–66 (1970)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Simjoo, M., Dong, Y., Andrianov, A., Talanana, M., Zitha, P.L.J.: Novel insight into foam mobility control. SPE J. 18(03), 416–427 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Smoller, J.: Shock Waves and Reaction–Diffusion Equations, 2nd edn. Springer, New York (1994)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Son Tran, T.: Electromagnetic assisted carbonated water flooding in heavy oil recovery. Master’s thesis, TU Delft (2009)

  21. Whitham, G.B.: Linear and Nonlinear Waves, vol. 42. Wiley, Hoboken (2011)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge Hans Bruining for the thorough reading of an earlier version of the manuscript and his many useful suggestions. We would also like to thank Paul Vermeulen, Marc Friebel, Dick Delforterie and Karl Heller for their technical support. We thank Dirk van der Lei from Holland Shielding Systems b.v. for his guidance in making the setup as safe as possible. We thank Stiw Harrison Herrera Taipe, Iuri Higor Aguiar da Igreja and anonymous referee for helping in improving this text. This work was funded in part by CNPq under (Grant No. 470635/2012-6) and Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. G. Chapiro was supported in part by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientfico e Tecnolgico (CNPq) under Grant 470635/2012-6 and FAPEMIG under Grant APQ 01377/15.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Grigori Chapiro.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Paz, P.Z.S., Hollmann, T.H., Kermen, E. et al. EM Heating-Stimulated Water Flooding for Medium–Heavy Oil Recovery. Transp Porous Med 119, 57–75 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-017-0873-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • EOR
  • Electromagnetic heating
  • Water flooding
  • Partial differential equations