Transport in Porous Media

, Volume 116, Issue 2, pp 567–583 | Cite as

Bail-Down Test Simulation at Laboratory Scale

  • Cédric PalmierEmail author
  • Florian Cazals
  • Olivier Atteia


This paper presents a comparison of hydraulic oil conductivity obtained from interpreting bail-down test data to values calculated from theory. The bail-down tests were performed at laboratory scale, on a radial portion of a circular domain filled with calibrated sand allowing hydraulic oil conductivity to be calculated using Parker’s theoretical model (Parker et al. in Water Resour Res 23(4):618–624, 1987). The bail-down tests were interpreted using the modified Bouwer and Rice (Huntley in Ground Water 38(1):46–52, 2000) and the modified Cooper methods (Beckett and Lyverse in API Interact LNAPL Guide 2:1–27, 2002). The results show that (1) both interpretation methods from bail-down test data give similar hydraulic oil conductivities, and (2) the hydraulic oil conductivities estimated from bail-down test data agree well with the hydraulic oil conductivity predicted when using the Parker theoretical model. Overall, this paper confirms that the modified Bouwer and Rice (Huntley 2000) and the modified Cooper methods (Beckett and Lyverse 2002) are valid to estimate hydraulic oil conductivity, giving realistic values despite test conditions not meeting all the assumptions and boundary conditions of each analytical solution.


Bail-down test Hydraulic oil conductivity Modified Bouwer and Rice (Huntley 2000) Modified Cooper (Beckett and Lyverse 2002) 

List of symbols


Soil layer thickness (m)


Gravitational acceleration (\(\hbox {m}\,\hbox {s}^{-2}\))


Displacement pressure head (m)


Capillary pressure head (m)


Intrinsec permeability (\(\hbox {m}\,\hbox {s}^{-1}\))


Hydraulic oil conductivity (\(\hbox {m}\,\hbox {s}^{-1}\))


Oil relative permeabilty


Van Genutchen parameter


Van Genutchen parameter


Capillary pressure (Pa)


Effective well radius (m)


Well radius (m)


Casing radius (m)


Aquifer storage coefficient


Oil/air interface drawdown in the well at time \(t_0\) after the oil is removed (m)


Oil/air interface drawdown in the well at time t after the oil is removed (m)


Total water effective saturation


Total oil saturation


Residual oil saturation


Total water saturation


Residual water saturation


Elapsed time (s)


Oil transmissivity (\(\hbox {m}^2\,\hbox {s}^{-1}\))

\(\alpha \)

Van Genutchen parameter (\(\hbox {m}^{-1}\))

\(\lambda \)

Brooks and Corey pore-size distribution parameter

\(\mu _o\)

Oil dynamic viscosity (cP)

\(\rho _{ro}\)

Oil relative density

\(\rho _w\)

Water density (\(\hbox {kg}\,\hbox {m}^{-3}\))

\(\sigma _{ij}\)

Interfacial tension between the phases i and j (\(\hbox {dynes}\,\hbox {cm}^{-1}\))



The authors wish to thank Duane R. Hampton for his many helpful comments in the review of this manuscript. We also thank Ford Motor Company for permission to publish this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut National Polytechnique de Bordeaux, EA 4592PessacFrance

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