Transport in Porous Media

, Volume 110, Issue 2, pp 251–280 | Cite as

Free-Flow–Porous-Media Coupling for Evaporation-Driven Transport and Precipitation of Salt in Soil

  • V. A. Jambhekar
  • R. Helmig
  • N. Schröder
  • N. Shokri


Evaporative salinization of soil is a common issue observed in arid and coastal regions. This process is driven by mass, momentum and energy exchange between the porous medium and the free-flow region. To analyze such coupled systems, we present a representative elementary volume-scale model concept for coupling non-isothermal multi-phase compositional porous-media flow and single-phase compositional laminar free flow. Our numerical results illustrate evaporation behavior from a porous medium initially saturated with NaCl solution, manifesting its influence on dissolved salt distribution, salt precipitation and porous-media properties. We show that the new model is capable to capture the evaporation physics for different stages of evaporative salinization and compare the numerical results to two different experimental datasets: (1) cumulative mass loss of water and dissolved salt during stage-1 of saline water evaporation and (2) evaporation rate for different stages of evaporative salinization. In addition, influence of the initial salt concentration on the saline water saturation vapor pressure and transition to stage-2 evaporation are analyzed and discussed.


Porous-media Free flow Coupling Evaporation  Salinization 



This work is supported by the German research foundation (DFG) under the frame work of the International research and training group NUPUS (GRK 1398). We thank Mansoureh Norouzi Rad, School of chemical engineering and analytical sciences, University of Manchester, and Dr. Karin Schmid, Institut für Wasser- und Umweltsystemmodellierung, University of Stuttgart, for their valuable support and inputs. Dr. Nima Shokri acknowledges the donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund (ACS-PRF) for partial support of the experimental work (PRF No. 52054-DNI6).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. A. Jambhekar
    • 1
  • R. Helmig
    • 1
  • N. Schröder
    • 1
  • N. Shokri
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Hydromechanics and Modelling of HydrosystemsUniversity of StuttgartStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical ScienceThe University of ManchesterManchesterUK

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