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Transport in Porous Media

, Volume 104, Issue 2, pp 315–333 | Cite as

Heterogeneous Alkane Reactions over Nanoporous Catalysts

  • Talib M. N. AlbayatiEmail author
  • Sophie E. Wilkinson
  • Arthur A. Garforth
  • Aidan M. Doyle
Article

Abstract

Pt-USY-712 (Si/Al = 6) and three SBA-15 catalysts (metal-loaded with 1 wt% Pt, 1 wt% Ni or 0.5 wt% Pt and 0.5 wt% Ni) were prepared and characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N\(_{2}\) adsorption porosimetry / BET and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The catalysts were then tested in the hydroisomerisation and hydrocracking of \(n\)-heptane using a micro-reactor at atmospheric pressure, and the products were analysed by GC-FID. Reaction temperatures ranged from 250–\(400\,\,^{\circ }\hbox {C}\) while the W/F values of \(n\hbox {-C}_{7}\) varied from 224.70–550.57 kg \(\hbox {mol}^{-1}\). The coke content of each catalyst was measured using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic activity was highest on Pt-USY-712 at the lowest reaction temperatures due to (a) the presence of strong Brønsted acids sites on the zeolite and (b) the smaller and more highly dispersed metal clusters on Pt-USY-712, relative to Pt-SBA-15. The activity was higher on the bimetallic Pt/Ni-SBA-15 than on mono-metallic Pt-SBA-15 as the co-impregnation of Ni with Pt enhanced the distribution of the metal clusters on the catalyst and resulted in improved surface area for reaction. The Pt-SBA-15 and Pt/Ni-SBA-15 catalysts both had the lowest and approximately equal coke percentages with 0.116 and 0.119 wt%, respectively.

Keywords

\(n\)-Heptane hydroisomerisation Zeolites Mesoporous silica SBA-15 

List of Symbols

A

Arrhenius constant

BET

Brunauer Emmett Teller

C

Carbon number

Ea

Activation energy

EDAX

Energy dispersive X-ray analysis

F

Mass flow rate

FID

Flame ionisation detector

GC

Gas chromatography

HC

Hydrocarbon

ID

Internal diameter

k

Rate constant

M

Mass

MW

Molecular weight

p*

Partial vapour pressure

\(\hbox {p}^{0}\)

Saturated pressure

p

Total pressure

R

Gas constant

RF

Reference factor

RON

Research octane number

SD

Standard derivation

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

T

Temperature

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

TGA

Thermo gravimetric analysis

USY

Ultra stable Y 12

V

Volume

Vm

Volume adsorbed

VF

Volumetric flow rate

W

Weight of catalyst

WHSV

Weight hourly space velocity

Notes

Acknowledgments

Dr. Talib M. Albayati is grateful to the University of Technology, Baghdad for allowing postdoctoral leave and to Manchester Metropolitan University for financial support.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Talib M. N. Albayati
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sophie E. Wilkinson
    • 2
  • Arthur A. Garforth
    • 2
  • Aidan M. Doyle
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of TechnologyBaghdadIraq
  2. 2.School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical ScienceUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  3. 3.Division of Chemistry and Environmental ScienceManchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK

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