Transport in Porous Media

, Volume 89, Issue 3, pp 323–336 | Cite as

Hydrodynamic Characterization of Nickel Metal Foam, Part 2: Effects of Pore Structure and Permeability

  • Shuichiro Miwa
  • Shripad T. RevankarEmail author


In this article, the structural characterization of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) nickel metal foam is presented. Scanning electron microscope and post image processing were used to carefully analyze the surface of the nickel metal foams. Data on foam unit cell, ligament thickness, projected pore diameter, and averaged porosity was obtained. Unit cell and projected pore diameters of CVD nickel metal foam possess Gaussian-like distribution. Characteristics of pore structure and its effect on permeability in Darcian flow regime were analyzed. The relations between the permeability, pore size, and porosity are presented. Present and previous data are compared with these relations. Measurement results indicate that the permeability or the viscous conductivity of the CVD processed metal foam is affected not only by the pore size, and porosity but also by the ligament structure.


Porous material Nickel foams Effect of pore structure Permeability Fuel cell materials 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arisetty S., Prasad A.K., Advani S.G.: Metal foams as flow field and gas diffusion layer in direct methanol fuel cells. J. Power Sources 165, 49–57 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arzt E.: The influence of an increasing particle coordination on the densification of spherical powders. Acta Metall. 30, 1883–1890 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashby, M.F.: Sintering and hot isostatic pressing diagrams. In: Wood, J.V. (ed.) Powder Metallurgy: An Overview, pp. 144–156. The Institute of Metals, London (1991)Google Scholar
  4. Banhart J.: Manufacture, characterisation and application of cellular metals and metal foams. Prog. Mat. Sci. 46, 559–632 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batu V.: Aquifer Hydraulics: A Comprehensive Guide to Hydrogeologic Data Analysis. Wiley, New York, NY (1998)Google Scholar
  6. Bear J.: Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. American Elsevier, New York, NY (1972)Google Scholar
  7. Boomsma K., Poulikakos D.: The effects of compression and pore size variations on the liquid flow characteristics in metal foams. ASME J. Fluids Eng. 124, 263–272 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carman P.C.: Fluid flow through a granular bed. Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng. 15, 150–167 (1937)Google Scholar
  9. Chauvetea, G., Zaitoun, A.: Basic rheological behavior of xanthan polysaccharide solutions in porous media: Effect of pore size and polymer concentration. In: Fayers, F.J. (ed.) Enhanced Oil Recovery, pp. 197–212. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, (1981)Google Scholar
  10. Coates, G.R., Peveraro, R.C.A., Hardwick, A., Roberts, D.: The magnetic resonance imaging log characterized by comparison with petrophysical properties and laboratory core data. In: Proceedings of the 66th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Formation Evaluation and Reservoir Geology, Society of Petroleum Engineers, SPE 22723 (1991)Google Scholar
  11. Despois J.F., Mortensen A.: Permeability of open-pore microcellular materials. Acta Mater. 53, 1381–1388 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dukhan N., Picon-Feliciano R., Alvarez-Hernandez A.R.: Air flow through compressed and uncompressed aluminum foam: measurements and correlations. ASME J. Fluids Eng. 128, 1004–1012 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gerbaux O., TVercueil T., Memponteil A., Bador B.: Experimental characterization of single and two-phase flow through nickel foams. Chem. Eng. Sci. 64, 4186–4195 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glover P.W.J., Walker E.: Grain-size to effective pore-size transformation derived from electrokinetic theory. Geophysics 74(1), E17–E29 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Glover P.W.J., Zadjali I.I., Frew K.A.: Permeability prediction from MICP and NMR data using an electrokinetic approach. Geophysics 71(4), F49–F60 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Happel, J., Brenner, H.: Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics with Special Applications to Particulate Media, 2nd revised edition. Noordhoff International Publishing, Leyden (1973)Google Scholar
  17. Hwang J.J., Hwang G.J., Yeh R.H., Chao C.H.: Measurement of interstitial convective heat transfer and frictional drag for flow across metal foams. ASME J. Heat Transf. 124, 120–129 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khayargoli, P., Loya, V., Lefebvre, L.-P., Medraj, M.: The impact of microstructure on the permeability of metal foams. In: Proc. CSME Forum pp. 220–228. London, Canada (2004)Google Scholar
  19. Krishnan S., Murthy J.Y., Garimella S.V.: Direct simulation of transport in open-cell metal foam. ASME J. Heat Transf. 128, 793–799 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kumar A., Reddy R.G.: Modeling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with metal foam in the flow-field of the bipolar/end plates. J. Power Sources 114, 54–62 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kumar A., Reddy R.G.: Materials and design development for bipolar/end plates in fuel cells. J. Power Sources 129, 62–67 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mancin S., Zilio C., Cavallini A., Rossetto L.: Pressure drop during air flow in aluminum foams. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 53, 3121–3130 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Miwa S., Revankar S.T.: Hydrodynamic characterization of nickel metal foam. Part 1: Single-phase permeability. Transp. Porous Media 80, 269–279 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Paek J.W., Kim B.H., Kim S.Y., Hyun J.M.: Effective thermal conductivity and permeability of aluminum foam materials. Int. J. Thermophys. 21, 453–464 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Paserin, V., Shu J., Marcuson S.: Superior nickel foam production: starting from raw materials quality control. Inco Special Products, Mississauga, ON, Canada (2008). Accessed 8 December 2008
  26. Richardson J.T., Remue D., Peng Y.: Properties of ceramic foam catalyst supports: pressure drop. Appl. Catal. 204, 19–32 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Singh R., Lee P.D., Lindley T.C., Dashwood R.J., Ferrie E., Imwinkelried T.: Characterization of the structure and permeability of titanium foams for spinal fusion devices. Acta Biomater. 5, 477–487 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stemmet C.P., van der Schaaf M.M.J., Kuster B.F.M., Schouten J.C.: Hydrodynamics of gas-liquid counter-current flow in solid foam packings. Chem. Eng. Sci 60, 6422–6429 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stemmet C.P., van der Schaaf M.M.J., Kuster B.F.M., Schouten J.C.: Solid foam packings for multiphase reactors modelling of liquid holdup and mass transfer. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 84, 1134–1141 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stemmet C.P., van der Schaaf M.M.J., Kuster B.F.M., Schouten J.C.: Gas–liquid mass transfer and axial dispersion in solid foam packings. Chem. Eng. Sci. 62, 5444–5450 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vafai K., Tien C.L.: Boundary and inertia effects on convective mass transfer in porous media. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 25, 1183–1190 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Van Baaren, J.P.: Quick-look permeability estimates using sidewall samples and porosity logs. In: Transactions of the 6th Annual European Logging Symposium, Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts, pp. 19–25 (1979)Google Scholar
  33. Xu W., Zhang H., Yang Z., Zhang J.: Numerical investigation on the flow characteristics and permeability of three-dimensional reticulated foam materials. Chem. Eng. J. 140, 562–569 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Multiphase and Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, School of Nuclear EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Division of Advanced Nuclear EngineeringPOSTECHPohangRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations