Transport in Porous Media

, Volume 84, Issue 1, pp 75–93 | Cite as

Lattice Gas Analysis of Liquid Front in Non-Crimp Fabrics

  • V. FrishfeldsEmail author
  • T. S. Lundström
  • A. Jakovics


The liquid flow front during impregnation of non-crimp fabrics is considered. Irregularities in fibre bundle architecture lead to generation of bubbles at this front. The velocity of this interface is highly influenced by capillary forces mainly caused by the small fibres inside the bundles. In order to better understand which shapes the liquid front takes up at different conditions, a lattice gas model has been applied. First, the macroscopic properties of the solved gas in the liquid are discussed. Next, bubble inclusions are analyzed as to liquid–gas interface position and concentrations of minor component in each phase. The capillary effects at the fluid front are studied for systems both with and without gaps between the bundles. The flow in the interior of the fibre bundles is scrutinized, as well, by also considering the viscous stresses. The flow through unidirectional fabrics is considered by a one-dimensional model, which suggests that the liquid front inside bundles and gaps moves with the same speed when the liquid front inside the bundle has to catch up with the liquid front in the gap.


Non-crimp fabrics Impregnation Lattice gas method Wetting 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Advani S.G., Dimitrova Z.: Role of capillary driven flow in composite manufacturing. In: Hartland, S. (eds) Surface and Interfacial Tension: Measurement Theory and Applications, pp. 263–311. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York (2004)Google Scholar
  2. Bowles K.J.: Void effects on the interlaminar shear-strength of unidirectional graphite-fiber-reinforced composites. J. Compos. Mater. 26, 1487 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Frishfelds V., Lundström T.S., Jacovics A.: Permeability of clustered fibre networks: modelling of unit cell. Mech. Compos. Mater. 39(3), 265–272 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Frishfelds V., Lundström T.S., Jakovics A.: Bubble motion through non-crimp fabrics during composites manufacturing. Compos. A 39, 243–251 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gebart B.R.: Permeability of unidirectional inforcements in RTM. J. Compos. Mater. 26, 1100–1133 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hamidi Y.K., Aktas L., Altan M.C.: Effect of packing on void morphology in resin transfer molded E-glass/epoxy composites. Polym. Compos. 26, 614–627 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Joekar-Niasar V., Hassanizadeh S.M., Leijnse A.: Insights into the relationships among capillary pressure, saturation, interfacial area and relative permeability using pore-network modelling. Transp. Porous Media 74, 201–219 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lee D.H., Lee W.I., Kang M.K.: Analysis and minimization of void formation during resin transfer molding process. Compos. Sci. Technol. 66, 3281–3289 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lundström T.S., Gebart B.R.: Influence from different process parameters on void formation in RTM. Polym. Compos. 15, 25–33 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lundström T.S., Gebart B.R.: Effect of perturbation of fibre architecture on permeability inside fibre tows. J. Compos. Mater. 29, 424–443 (1995)Google Scholar
  11. Lundström T.S., Gebart B.R., Lundemo C.Y.: Void formation in RTM. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 12, 1340–1349 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lundström T.S., Frishfelds V., Jakovics A.: A statistical approach to permeability of clustered fibre reinforcements. J. Compos. Mater. 38, 1137–1149 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lundström, T.S., Frishfelds, V., Jakovics, A.: Bubble formation and motion in non-crimp fabrics with perturbed bundle geometry. Compos. A (in print) (2009)Google Scholar
  14. Madzhulis I., Kaupuzs J., Frishfelds V.: Kinetics of new phase formation inside the crystal. Latv. J. Phys. Tech. Sci. N3, 55–59 (1996)Google Scholar
  15. Nordlund M., Lundström T.S., Frishfelds V., Jakovics A.: Permeability network model to non-crimp fabrics. Compos. A 37A, 826–835 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nordlund M., Lundström T.S.: Effect of multi-scale porosity in local permeability modelling of non-crimp fabrics. Transp. Porous Media 73, 109–124 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Parnas R.S., Salem A.J., Sadiq T.A., Wang H.P., Advani S.G.: Interaction between micro- and macro-scopic flow in RTM performs. Compos. Struct. 27, 93–107 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Patel N., Lee L.J.: Effects of fiber mat architecture on void formation and removal in liquid composite molding. Polym. Compos. 16, 386–399 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Song B., Bismarck A., Springer J.: Contact angle measurements on fibers and fiber assemblies, bundles, fabrics, and textiles. In: Hartland, S. (eds) Surface and Interfacial Tension: Measurement, Theory and Applications, pp. 425–481. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  20. Ziman J.M.: Models of Disorder: The Theoretical Physics of Homogeneously Disordered Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1979)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Fluid MechanicsLuleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden
  2. 2.University of LatviaRigaLatvia

Personalised recommendations