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Cache related pre-emption delays in hierarchical scheduling


Hierarchical scheduling provides a means of composing multiple real-time applications onto a single processor such that the temporal requirements of each application are met. This has become a popular technique in industry as it allows applications from multiple vendors as well as legacy applications to co-exist in isolation on the same platform. However, performance enhancing features such as caches mean that one application can interfere with another by evicting blocks from cache that were in use by another application, violating the requirement of temporal isolation. In this paper, we present analysis that bounds the additional delay due to blocks being evicted from cache by other applications in a system using hierarchical scheduling when using either a local FP or EDF scheduler.

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  1. The concept of UCBs and ECBs cannot be applied to the FIFO or Pesudo-LRU replacement policies as shown by Burguiere et al. (2009).

  2. Although we used 12 cache sets in this example, we note that the result obtained is in fact independent of the total number of cache sets.

  3. Strictly, h(t) is the maximum time required for the server to provide the processing time demand.




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This work was partially funded by the UK EPSRC through the Engineering Doctorate Centre in Large-Scale Complex IT Systems (EP/F501374/1), the UK EPSRC funded MCC (EP/K011626/1), the European Community’s ARTEMIS Programme and UK Technology Strategy Board, under ARTEMIS grant agreement 295371-2 CRAFTERS, COST Action IC1202: Timing Analysis On Code-Level (TACLe) and the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7 under Grant Agreement no. 246556, “RBUCE-UP”. EPSRC Research Data Management: The benchmarks used were from external, publically available benchmark suites, no new primary data was created during this study.

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Lunniss, W., Altmeyer, S., Lipari, G. et al. Cache related pre-emption delays in hierarchical scheduling. Real-Time Syst 52, 201–238 (2016).

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  • Cache related pre-emption delays
  • Hierarchical scheduling
  • Fixed priority pre-emptive scheduling
  • Earliest deadline first pre-emptive scheduling
  • Response time analysis