Real-Time Systems

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 308–336 | Cite as

Optimal design of virtual links in AFDX networks

  • Ahmad Al Sheikh
  • Olivier Brun
  • Maxime Chéramy
  • Pierre-Emmanuel Hladik
Article

Abstract

The Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX) backbone constitutes one of the major technological breakthroughs in modern avionic architectures. This network is based on routing Ethernet frames through isolated data tunnels referred to as Virtual Links (VL). VLs can be thought of as multicast trees, each serving for data transmission between one and only one end of the network to several others. Multiple VLs are deployed for exchanging data between avionic systems with a reserved amount of bandwidth.

In this paper, we propose different methods to define VL characteristics and to route VLs in the network while minimizing the maximum utilization rate of the links. The proposed methods provide the basis for a more efficient design of the VLs, and have to be completed later on by the verification of the worst-case network latencies. The industrial applicability is shown on experimental results and on a representative benchmark.

Keywords

AFDX Virtual link Bandwidth consumption Route optimization 

References

  1. Ahuja R, Magnanti T, Orlin J, Weihe K (1993) Network flows: theory, algorithms, and applications. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs MATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Airlines electronic engineering committee (AEEC) (2005) Aircraft data network, part 7: Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX) network. ARINC specification 664 Google Scholar
  3. Al-Sheikh A, Brun O, Hladik PE, Prabhu B (2012) Strictly periodic scheduling in IMA-based architectures. Real-Time Syst. doi:10.1007/s11241-012-9148-y Google Scholar
  4. Authority F (1992) 178B, Software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification. DO-178B/ED-12B, Radio technical commission for aeronautics Google Scholar
  5. Behnam M, Marau R, Pedreiras P (2011) Analysis and optimization of the MTU in real-time communications over switched ethernet. In: IEEE 16th conference on emerging technologies factory automation (ETFA’11) Google Scholar
  6. Charara H (2007) Évaluation des performances temps réel de réseaux embarqués avioniques. PhD thesis, Institut National Polytechniques de Toulouse Google Scholar
  7. Charara H, Scharbarg JL, Ermont J, Fraboul C (2006) Methods for bounding end-to-end delays on an AFDX network. In: 18th Euromicro conference on real-time systems, 2006 Google Scholar
  8. Chen J, Gong L, Yang Y, Zeng P (2006) Average performance of packet network. In: 6th international conference on ITS telecommunications proceedings, 2006, pp 515–518 Google Scholar
  9. Crichigno J, Barán B (2004) A multicast routing algorithm using multiobjective optimization. In: Telecommunications and Networking-ICT, 2004, pp. 63–74 Google Scholar
  10. Gilbert E, Pollak H (1968) Steiner minimal trees. SIAM J Appl Math 16(1):1–29 MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hwang F, Richards D (1992) Steiner tree problems. Networks 22(1):55–89 MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kodikara C, Worrall S, Kondoz A (2005) Optimal settings of maximum transfer unit (mtu) for efficient wireless video communications. IEE Proc, Commun 152(5):648–654 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lauer M, Ermont J, Boniol F, Pagetti C (2011) Latency and freshness analysis on IMA systems. In: IEEE 16th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA), pp 1–8 Google Scholar
  14. Martin S, Minet P (2006) Schedulability analysis of flows scheduled with FIFO: application to the expedited forwarding class. In: 20th International parallel and distributed processing symposium (IPDPS 2006) Google Scholar
  15. Pióro M, Medhi D, service SO (2004) Routing, flow, and capacity design in communication and computer networks. Citeseer Google Scholar
  16. SAE ARP4754 (1995) Certification considerations for highly-integrated or complex aircraft systems. Systems integration requirements task group AS-1C. ASD, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc Google Scholar
  17. Scharbarg JL, Ridouard F, Fraboul C (2009) A probabilistic analysis of end-to-end delays on an AFDX avionic network. In: IEEE transactions on industrial informatics, pp. 38–49 Google Scholar
  18. Seok Y, Lee Y, Choi Y, Kim C (2002) Explicit multicast routing algorithms for constrained traffic engineering Google Scholar
  19. Spitzer C (1993) Digital avionics systems. McGraw-Hill, New York Google Scholar
  20. Spitzer C (2001) The avionics handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton Google Scholar
  21. Watkins C, Walter R (2007) Transitioning from federated avionics architectures to integrated modular avionics. In: Proceedings of the IEEE/AIAA 26th digital avionics systems conference (DASC’07) Google Scholar
  22. Zitzler E, Thiele L (1999) Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms: a comparative case study and the strength Pareto approach. IEEE Trans Evol Comput 3(4):257–271 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Al Sheikh
    • 1
  • Olivier Brun
    • 1
  • Maxime Chéramy
    • 1
  • Pierre-Emmanuel Hladik
    • 1
  1. 1.LAAS-CNRSToulouseFrance

Personalised recommendations