Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 133, Issue 1, pp 123–135 | Cite as

Abscisic acid and salinity stress induced somaclonal variation and increased histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in Ananas comosus var. MD2

  • Nur Asniyati Abdul Halim
  • Boon Chin Tan
  • Mohd Razik Midin
  • Maria Madon
  • Norzulaani Khalid
  • Jamilah Syafawati YaacobEmail author
Original Article


Somaclonal and phenotypic variation caused by genetic and/or epigenetic modifications, are a valuable source of genetic variation to improve desirable polygenetic traits in crops. In this study, we induced somaclonal variation in vitro pineapple (Ananas comosus var. MD2) through hormonal induction, NaCl, and abscisic acid (ABA) supplementation. Our results showed that supplementation of high concentration of 6-benzylaminopurine (4.0 mg/L BAP) alone or combined with indole-butyric acid (IBA) produced the highest percentage of dwarf variants (100%). Murashige and Skoog (MS) media containing 4.0 mg/L BAP plus 2.0 mg/L IBA produced the shortest plantlets (1.9 ± 0.1 cm). In comparison, MS media containing 1.0% NaCl induced formation of dwarf plantlets with a mean plantlet height of 1.4 ± 0.3 cm, whereas 1.0 mg/L ABA generated plantlets with a mean plantlet height of 1.7 ± 0.1 cm. We then analyzed the histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme activity for dwarf and non-dwarf plantlets. In general, dwarf plantlets exhibited higher HDAC activity than non-dwarf plantlets. The highest HDAC activity (109, 333.33 ± 4.40 ng/min/mg) was recorded for dwarf plantlets grown on media supplemented with 1.0 mg/L ABA. The dwarf variants also underwent phenotypic recovery to normal phenotype within 8 months after transferred to MS basal media. No ploidy alteration was detected in these dwarf plantlets after analyzed by flow cytometry. Taken together, although the generated dwarf plantlets showed higher HDAC activity compared to non-dwarf plantlets, their capability of reverting to non-dwarf phenotype suggested that it might be due to epigenetic modulation.


Flow cytometry Histone deacetylation Phenotype recovery Pineapple Somaclonal variants 



The authors thank the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia for the financial support (FRGS Grant No. FP041-2014A) and University of Malaya, Malaysia, for providing the experimental facilities and PPP grant PG117-2015A.

Author contributions

JSY and NK conceived and designed the research. NAAH and MRM conducted the experiments. JSY, NK and MM contributed reagents and analytical tools. NAAH, BCT and JSY analyzed the data. NAAH, BCT and JSY wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nur Asniyati Abdul Halim
    • 1
  • Boon Chin Tan
    • 2
  • Mohd Razik Midin
    • 3
    • 4
  • Maria Madon
    • 5
  • Norzulaani Khalid
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Centre for Research in Biotechnology for Agriculture (CEBAR)University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology, Kulliyyah of ScienceInternational Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Jalan Sultan Ahmad ShahKuantanMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Plant Science, Kulliyyah of ScienceInternational Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)KuantanMalaysia
  5. 5.Advanced Biotechnology and Breeding Centre (ABBC)Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)KajangMalaysia

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