Ethylene inhibitors improve efficiency of microspore embryogenesis in hexaploid triticale
- 412 Downloads
Doubled haploid technology is an important tool in plant breeding and research, but routine application requires the establishment of efficient protocols. Microspore culture is an attractive approach although its efficiency is strongly dependent on the genotype. In this study we evaluated the effects of the three ethylene inhibitors aminooxyacetic acid, 2,5-norbornadiene, and silver thiosulphate (STS) on embryogenesis, regeneration rate and green plant rate in triticale microspore culture. Our results show that STS at 20 µM in particular had a positive effect on the embryogenesis rate, suggesting that for many genotypes ethylene accumulates in the culture vessel above a critical threshold where it becomes inhibitory for embryogenesis. In addition, STS also appears to positively influence the green plant rate. Taken together, our results show that the addition of ethylene inhibitors at defined concentrations can counteract the negative effect of ethylene, increase the embryogenesis rate and potentially also the green plant rate in microspore culture.
KeywordsTriticale Microspore culture Doubled haploids Embryogenesis Ethylene inhibitors
We greatly acknowledge the lab work of Alexandra Appel and Sylvia Kaiser.
Compliance with Ethical Standard
The authors declare that the experiments comply with the current laws of Germany.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Biddington NL, Robinson TH (1991) Ethylene production during anther culture of Brussel sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) and its relationship with factors that affect embryo production. Plant Cell Tissue Cult 25:169–177Google Scholar
- Biddington NL, Sutherland RA, Robinson HT (1988) Silver nitrate increases embryo production in anther culture of Brussels sprouts. Ann Bot 62:181–185Google Scholar
- Horner M, McComb JA, McComb AJ, Street HE (1977) Ethylene production and plantlet formation by Nicotiana anthers cultured in the presence and abscence of charcoal. J Exp Bot 28:1365–1372Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2010) R: a language and environment for statistical computing, R foundation for statistical computing. http://www.R-project.org
- Sisler EC, Pian A (1973) Effect of ethylene and cyclic olefins on tobacco leaves. Tob Sci 17:68–72Google Scholar
- Tiainen T (1996) Influence of ethylene in microspore embryogenesis. In: Jain SM, Sopory SK, Veilleux RE (eds) In vitro haploid production in higher plants, vol 1, pp 177–187Google Scholar