Sonication and ultrasound: impact on plant growth and development

Review

Abstract

Plant biotechnology, and plant tissue culture in particular, could benefit from new means to stimulate plant growth and development. Although the number of studies is still limited, there is evidence that sonication using low frequencies of sound (as little as a few dozen Hz) to as high as ultrasound (several dozen kHz) may increase organogenesis. In this brief review, we look at those examples in detail and explore how sound influences growth and development. Where available, we try to offer a mechanism by which sound affects or influences plant growth.

Keywords

Frequency (Hz) Sonication Sound waves Ultrasound 

Abbreviations

GUS

β-Glucuronidase

Hz

Hertz

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SAAT

Sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest, financial or other.

Glossary (simplified from Wikipedia)

Sound intensity

The sound power (a measure of sound energy E per time t unit) per unit area. Its unit is W/m2

Sound frequency

The number of repetitions per unit time of a complete waveform. Its unit is hertz (Hz)

Sound pressure level

It is measured in decibels (dB) above a standard reference level

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kagawa-kenJapan
  2. 2.Research Institute of NyíregyházaUniversity of DebrecenNyíregyházaHungary

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