Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 111, Issue 2, pp 209–218 | Cite as

Shoot and root proliferation in ‘Williams’ banana: are the topolins better cytokinins?

  • Adeyemi O. Aremu
  • Michael W. Bairu
  • Lucie Szüčová
  • Karel Doležal
  • Jeffrey F. Finnie
  • Johannes Van Staden
Original Paper


The effects of five topolins (meta-Topolin = mT; meta-Topolin riboside = mTR; meta-Methoxy topolin = MemT; meta-Methoxy topolin riboside = MemTR and meta-Methoxy topolin 9-tetrahydropyran-2-yl = MemTTHP) on shoot and root regeneration of micropropagated ‘Williams’ bananas were compared to benzyladenine (BA). Sterile shoot-tip explants were cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) media containing 10, 20 or 30 μM of the above cytokinins (CKs) for 42 days. Using shoot regenerated from optimum CK concentration, rooting experiments involving the use of indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, naphthalene acetic acid, smoke–water (SW) and karrikinolide (KAR1) were conducted. Apart from 10 μM BA and 30 μM MemTTHP treatments, the number of shoots produced in all the CK treatments were significantly higher than the control. In addition, 30 μM mT resulted in the highest number of shoots (7.3 ± 1.0). Unlike other CK treatments requiring higher concentrations, optimum mean shoot number per explant rate was attained at the lowest concentration in MemT and MemTTHP (10 μM) treatments. The use of 10 μM MemTTHP had the least root inhibitory effect during the shoot proliferation phase. In terms of abnormality index, mTR-regenerated plantlets were of the best quality across all the CKs tested. In mT- and BA-derived shoots, SW and KAR1 significantly increased the number and length of roots compared to the control. Overall, when compared to BA, the use of topolin demonstrated higher mean shoot number per explant (MemT and MemTTHP) at lowest CK concentrations and the ease of rooting during the shoot proliferation phase (MemTTHP). During the rooting phase, topolin treatments produced more off-shoots than BA-treated ones. The current finding is a further demonstration of the increasing importance of topolins in micropropagation.


Auxins Karrikinolide Musa spp. Physiological abnormalities Plant tissue culture Rooting Smoke–water 



Analysis of variance






Duncan’s multiple range test


Dry weight


Fresh weight


Indole-3-acetic acid


Indole-3-butyric acid




meta-Methoxy topolin


meta-Methoxy topolin riboside


meta-Methoxy topolin 9-tetrahydropyran-2-ylpurine


Murashige and Skoog medium




meta-Topolin riboside


α-Naphthalene acetic acid


Plant growth regulator


Photosynthetic photon flux


Plant tissue culture





The University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa provided financial support. This work was also supported by the Czech Ministry of Education, grant No. ED0007/01/01 Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research and by The Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (NAZV QI92A247). We sincerely appreciate the help of Mrs Alison Young (UKZN, Botanical Garden, Pietermaritzburg) and her staff during the greenhouse stage of the current experiment.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adeyemi O. Aremu
    • 1
  • Michael W. Bairu
    • 1
  • Lucie Szüčová
    • 2
    • 3
  • Karel Doležal
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jeffrey F. Finnie
    • 1
  • Johannes Van Staden
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Life Sciences, Research Centre for Plant Growth and DevelopmentUniversity of KwaZulu-Natal PietermaritzburgScottsvilleSouth Africa
  2. 2.Laboratory of Growth RegulatorsInstitute of Experimental Botany AS CR, Palacký UniversityOlomoucCzech Republic
  3. 3.Faculty of Science, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural ResearchPalacký UniversityOlomoucCzech Republic

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