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RETRACTED ARTICLE: Expression of a rice chitinase gene enhances antifungal response in transgenic litchi (cv. Bedana)

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This article was retracted on 02 December 2016


To enhance the antifungal response of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), transgenic plants were generated by transferring rice chitinase gene driven by a maize-ubiquitin promoter along with its first intron into the zygotic embryos via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After co-cultivation for 2 days, zygotic embryos were transferred onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) modified media supplemented with 25 mgl−1 hygromycin and 400 mgl−1 cefotaxime. Consequently embryos were selected and the antibiotic resistant transgenic plantlets were regenerated. The culture time from zygotic embryo to transgenic plants was 14 months. The integration of the transgene was confirmed by PCR, RT-PCR, Southern and western blot analyses. The transgenic plants exhibited higher chitinase activity than the non-transformed plants. The chitinase activity when examined using the native polyacrylamide in-gel assay, indicated that the foreign gene expression resulting in the protein of expected molecular weight that showed chitinase activity. The transgenic plants showed delayed onset of the disease and smaller lesions following in vitro inoculation of die-back, leaf spots and blight pathogen (Phomopsis sp.). The transgenic plants were adapted to the greenhouse and did not show any phenotypic alterations.

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Gamborg et al. (1968)

CPW salts:

Frearson et al. (1973)

2,-4-d :

2,-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

GA3 :

Gibberellic acid


Hygromycin phospotransferase gene


Indole3-butyric acid


Murashige and Skoog (1962)


α-naphthalene acetic acid


Kao and Michayluk (1975)


Silver thiosulphate


Sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis


Woody plant medium


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Authors are grateful to the University Grants Commission, Govt. of India, New Delhi for providing financial assistance. We are highly thankful to Dr. M.V.Razam, Department of Genetics, South Campus, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India, for providing rice chitinase 11 cDNA and antibody, Mr. S.C.B. Sharma, Advanced Instrumentation Research Facility, JNU, New Delhi for providing Electron micrography and Dr. Shiva Prakash, Senior Scientist, Monsanto company, Bangalore, India for manuscript updating.

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Correspondence to D. K. Das.

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An erratum to this article is available at

This article has been retracted. The retraction was undertaken at the request of Dr. Das, the corresponding author of this paper, as it was found that this paper included duplicated information already published in Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 4 (2010), 820-833, by the same corresponding author, and data that did not correspond to the species studied in this publication.

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Das, D.K., Rahman, A. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Expression of a rice chitinase gene enhances antifungal response in transgenic litchi (cv. Bedana). Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 109, 315–325 (2012).

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