An efficient regeneration system via direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis for the medicinal tree Murraya koenigii

  • S. Paul
  • A. Dam
  • A. Bhattacharyya
  • T. K. BandyopadhyayEmail author
Original Paper


A reproducible protocol for direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis was established in a small aromatic tree, Murraya koenigii. Embryogenic callus was obtained from 90% zygotic embryonic axis (ZE) and 70% cotyledon (COT) explants in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 8.88 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 2.675 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Globular somatic embryos were induced and further matured from such embryogenic callus by subsequent culture on the same basal media containing thidiazuron (TDZ) (2.27–9.08 μM). The highest frequency of somatic embryos (14.58 ± 0.42) was recovered from ZE-derived callus after 6 weeks. The age and type of explant and concentration of TDZ played an important role in the development of somatic embryos. Explants excised from 60-day-old seed differentiated from 96.67% of ZE explants and 86.67% from COT explants when cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 4.54 and 9.08 μM TDZ, respectively, after 4 weeks. The best result obtained for the average frequency of somatic embryos (11.28 ± 0.32) was from ZE explants, which was significantly higher than COT explants (7.34 ± 0.97). Most of the somatic embryos (above 95%), irrespective of their origin, germinated after 4 weeks in 1/2 MS basal media containing 2.32 μM kinetin (KN) and 1.07 μM NAA. Well-rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized. Histological analysis and scanning electron micrographs confirmed the initiation, development, and germination of somatic embryos from both explants.


Somatic embryogenesis Murraya koenigii Thidiazuron (TDZ) Aromatic tree 



We are grateful to Dr. S. Banerjee, Editor, Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, for suggesting the necessary modifications to the manuscript. We thank Dr. P. S. Basu and Mr. K. Mukherjee for their valuable suggestions during the manuscript revision. Personal research grants (PRGs) provided by the University of Kalyani, Kalyani, West Bengal, India, are also gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Paul
    • 1
  • A. Dam
    • 1
  • A. Bhattacharyya
    • 2
  • T. K. Bandyopadhyay
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of KalyaniKalyaniIndia
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia

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