Factors influencing induction and maintenance of Vitis rotundifolia Michx. embryogenic cultures
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Unopened leaves, petioles and fully opened leaves from micropropagation cultures of five Vitis rotundifolia Michx. varieties were cultured on induction medium to study their embryogenic response. Among the various explants tested, the maximum number of varieties produced embryogenic cultures from unopened leaves followed by fully opened leaves and petioles. Based on morphological differences, two types of embryogenic cultures were identified. Friable cultures typically arose as proembryonic masses (PEM) on induction medium, whereas somatic embryo production without an intervening PEM stage was observed in compact cultures. Of the five varieties tested, the highest frequency of embryogenic response was observed from fully opened leaves of ‘Supreme’ and unopened leaves and petioles of ‘Delicious’. Attempts to initiate suspension cultures from varieties resulted in proliferation and maintenance of ‘Alachua’ and ‘Carlos’ cultures in liquid medium for 16 weeks. Embryogenic potential of varieties was studied on cultures growing on embryo development medium. The maximum number of cotyledonary stage somatic embryos from 0.2 g proembryonic masses were observed in ‘Carlos’ (379.3) followed by ‘Alachua’ (350.0) and ‘Delicious’ (305.0). Cotyledonary stage somatic embryos germinated when cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 1 μM Benzyladenine (BA). Although high embryo germination rates (80–100%) were observed in the varieties tested, plant recovery from germinated somatic embryos ranged from 6–47%. Embryogenic cultures could be maintained on X6 medium and used in genetic engineering studies.
KeywordsMuscadine grape Somatic embryogenesis Plant tissue culture Plant regeneration
Murashige and Skoog
This research was supported by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ Viticulture Trust Fund and the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. We thank Mary S. Brennan for assistance with statistical analyses.
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