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High frequency plant regeneration following abnormal shoot organogenesis in the medicinal tree Hovenia dulcis


An efficient plant regeneration protocol for shoot organogenesis from Hovenia dulcis callus cultures was established. Induction of organogenic callus was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.65 μM kinetin and 4.5 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Further differentiation of organogenic callus into primordia, shoot-like structures, and plantlets was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 0.23 μM gibberellic acid (GA3) and 0.46 μM kinetin. Numerous abnormal shoots developed upon transfer of callus to MS medium containing cytokinins, and these failed to grow further into whole plantlets. However, transfer of ‘abnormal’ shoots to a fresh MS medium lacking cytokinins resulted in growth of normal shoots. Elongated shoots subsequently were rooted in basal MS medium, and whole plantlets were established in a soil mix. Analysis of regenerated plants using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) confirmed the genetic stability of these regenerant plantlets.

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2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid





GA3 :

Gibberellic acid


a-Naphthaleneacetic acid


Murashige and Skoog


Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA


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This work was supported by the Grant funded by the Institute of Hadong Green Tea, and the Korea Research Foundation Grant funded by the Korean Government (MOEHRD, Basic Research Promotion Fund) (KRF-2006-521-F00023).

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Correspondence to Myung Suk Choi.

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Jeong, M.J., Song, H.J., Park, D.J. et al. High frequency plant regeneration following abnormal shoot organogenesis in the medicinal tree Hovenia dulcis . Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 98, 59–65 (2009).

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  • Organogenesis
  • Primordia
  • Abnormal shoots
  • Cytokinins
  • RAPD analysis