Rapid production of wheat cell suspension cultures directly from immature embryos

  • Jolanta Biesaga-KościelniakEmail author
  • Janusz Kościelniak
  • Maria Filek
  • Anna Janeczko
Original Paper


The aim of this study was to produce suspension cultures of winter wheat directly from immature embryos bypassing the callus stage, and to determine their capacity for growth and regeneration in comparison to suspension cultures produced from callus. The study was carried out using Polish winter wheat varieties: ‘Grana’ and ‘Rosa’. Immature embryos were isolated, homogenized and transferred directly to liquid medium supplemented with 2,4-D. Actively dividing cell cultures were obtained within 2 months after the cultures were started. Suspension cultures from callus of immature embryos was also produced. With both cultivars, faster growth was observed in the suspension cultures produced directly from embryos than in the suspensions produced from callus. Metabolic activity was higher in the suspension culture produced directly from embryos than in the suspension derived from callus only in ‘Grana’. The production of 1-amiocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), an ethylene precursor, was lower in the suspension cultures produced directly from embryos than in the suspensions produced from callus. Morphogenic capacity was significantly higher in aggregates derived directly from embryos than in aggregates derived from callus. With ‘Rosa’, about one third of the aggregates derived directly from embryos regenerated shoots. Production of ACC was lower in ‘Rosa’ cell culture that regenerated then in other cell cultures that did not. Photosystem II reactions were more efficient in dark green aggregates than in light green or pale green aggregates which were unable to regenerate. With the method presented, wheat cell suspension cultures with a regeneration potential can be produced in 2 or 3 months less time than with traditional methods.


Cell suspension Immature embryos Metabolic activity Regeneration Wheat 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jolanta Biesaga-Kościelniak
    • 1
    Email author
  • Janusz Kościelniak
    • 2
  • Maria Filek
    • 1
    • 3
  • Anna Janeczko
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Plant PhysiologyPolish Academy of SciencesKrakowPoland
  2. 2.Chair of Plant Physiology, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of AgricultureKrakowPoland
  3. 3.Pedagogical University of KrakowKrakowPoland

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