Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

, Volume 86, Issue 3, pp 303–318 | Cite as

Green fluorescent protein as a vital marker for non-destructive detection of transformation events in transgenic plants

  • Marek Hraška
  • Slavomír Rakouský
  • Vladislav Čurn


Transformation of plants is a popular tool for modifying various desirable traits. Marker genes, like those encoding for bacterial β-glucuronidase (GUS), firefly luciferase (LUC) or jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) have been shown to be very useful for establishing of efficient transformation protocols. Due to favourable properties such as no need of exogenous substrates and easy visualization, GFP has been found to be superior in to other markers in many cases. However, the use of GFP fluorescence is associated with some obstacles, mostly related to the diminishing of green fluorescence in older tissues, variation in fluorescence levels among different tissues and organs, and occasional interference with other fluorescing compounds in plants. This paper briefly summarizes basic GFP properties and applications, and describes in more detail the contribution of GFP to the establishment, evaluation and improvement of transformation procedures for plants. Moreover, features and possible obstacles associated with monitoring GFP fluorescence are discussed.


Agrobacteriumtumefaciens Green fluorescent protein Particle bombardment Plant transformation Selection 



Green fluorescent protein




Firefly luciferase


Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction


Green fluorescent protein gene


β-Glucuronidase gene


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marek Hraška
    • 1
    • 3
  • Slavomír Rakouský
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vladislav Čurn
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Biological Sciences, Department of GeneticsUniversity of South BohemiaČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of Health and Social StudiesUniversity of South BohemiaČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  3. 3.Faculty of Agriculture, Biotechnological CentreUniversity of South BohemiaČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic

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