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The role of statins in the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis of 8 randomized trials

Abstract

Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common complication of coronary angiography/angioplasty. Prevention is the key to reduce the incidence of CIN and it begins with appropriate pre-procedural management. Statins have been shown to possess pleiotropic effects (anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties) and their effects on CIN were assessed in several studies with conflicting results. Aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of short-term statins for the prevention of CIN in patients undergoing coronary angiography/percutaneous interventions. We performed formal searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane central register of controlled trials and major international scientific session abstracts from January 1990 to January 2014 of trials which compares short-term statins versus Placebo for the prevention of CIN in patients undergoing coronary angiography/angioplasty. Data regarding study design, statin dose, inclusion/exclusion criteria, number of patients, and clinical outcome was extracted by 2 investigators. Eight trials were included, with a total of 4734 patients. CIN occurred in 79/2,358 patients (3.3 %) treated with statins versus 153/2,376 patients (6.4 %) of the placebo group [OR 95 % CI 0.50 (0.38–0.66), p < 0.00001; p het = 0.39]. Benefits were both observed with high-dose short-term statins [OR 95 % CI 0.44 (0.30–0.65), p < 0.0001; p het = 0.16] and low-dose statins, [OR 95 % CI 0.58 (0.39–0.88), p = 0.010; p het = 0.90]. By meta-regression analysis, no significant relationship was observed between benefits from statin therapy and patient’s risk profile (p = 0.26), LDL cholesterol (p = 0.4), contrast volume (p = 0.94) or diabetes rate (p = 0.38). This meta-analysis showed that among patients undergoing coronary angiography/percutaneous intervention the use of short-term statins reduces the incidence of CIN, and therefore is highly recommended even in patients with low LDL-cholesterol levels.

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Acknowledgments

Prof De Luca had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest regarding the opinion expressed in this manuscript and did not receive Grant or financial support from industry or from any other source to prepare this review.

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Correspondence to Giuseppe De Luca.

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Barbieri, L., Verdoia, M., Schaffer, A. et al. The role of statins in the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis of 8 randomized trials. J Thromb Thrombolysis 38, 493–502 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11239-014-1076-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11239-014-1076-3

Keywords

  • Statin therapy
  • Contrast induced nephropathy
  • Percutaneous intervention