Skip to main content

Time-based resource allocation for downlink in heterogeneous wireless cellular networks

Abstract

Heterogeneous Wireless Cellular Networks (HWCNs) are an essential part of current and future cellular networks as a result of several benefits they offer regarding the ever-increasing user traffic requirement. Network resources are nevertheless limited, and as such, an efficient allocation of resources is vital for the development of the HWCNs. An improvement in the coverage area leads to increased mobile user satisfaction which in turn yields higher revenue for network operators. Minimising power consumption helps reduces CO\(_2\) emissions for economically and environmentally efficient HWCNs. In this paper, by exploiting stochastic geometry, we first analyse the Coverage Probability (CP) of a typical HWCN and evaluate the impacts of propagation model/building types, cell allocation and per-tier power allocation. It is shown that a higher allocation of resources in a more lossy environment generally leads to a higher CP up to a certain threshold. Also, previous research shows that large-scale user behaviour varies over time. To this end, this paper proposes a hybrid Resource Allocation (RA) scheme, namely Time-based RA (TRA), to solve a hybrid optimisation problem of improving coverage area during periods of peak user traffic while minimising total power consumption during off-peak periods. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme achieves up to 25% higher CP during the peak period subject to limited total available power and 57% savings in total power consumption during the period of minimal user traffic given a target coverage probability, when compared to the schemes with equally allocated resources.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

Notes

  1. 1.

    The CP is defined as the likelihood that a UE receives the desired signal from the transmitting BS.

References

  1. 1.

    ElSawy, H., Hossain, E., & Haenggi, M. (2013). Stochastic geometry for modeling, analysis, and design of multi-tier and cognitive cellular wireless networks: A survey. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 15(3), 996–1019.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Peng, M., Wang, C., Li, J., Xiang, H., & Lau, V. (2015). Recent advances in underlay heterogeneous networks: Interference control, resource allocation, and self-organization. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 17(2), 700–729.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Hu, R. Q., & Qian, Y. (2014). An energy efficient and spectrum efficient wireless heterogeneous network framework for 5g systems. IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(5), 94–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Swami, P., Bhatia, V., Vuppala, S., & Ratnarajah, T. (2021). User fairness in NOMA-HetNet using optimized power allocation and time slotting. IEEE Systems Journal, 15(1), 1005–1014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Xu, C., Zheng, G., & Zhao, X. (2020). Energy-minimization task offloading and resource allocation for mobile edge computing in NOMA heterogeneous networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 69(12), 16001–16016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Ali, Z. J., Noordin, N. K., Sali, A., & Hashim, F. (2020). Fair energy-efficient resource allocation for downlink NOMA heterogeneous networks. IEEE Access, 8, 200129–200145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Gopalam, S., Hanly, S. V., & Whiting, P. (2020). Distributed user association and resource allocation algorithms for three tier HetNets. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 19(12), 7913–7926.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Lai, J. Y., Wu, W. H., & Su, Y. T. (2020). Resource allocation and node placement in multi-hop heterogeneous integrated-access-and-backhaul networks. IEEE Access, 8, 122937–122958.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Vien, Q. T., Akinbote, T., Nguyen, H. X., Trestian, R., & Gemikonakli, O. (2015). On the coverage and power allocation for downlink in heterogeneous wireless cellular networks. In 2015 IEEE international conference on communications (ICC), IEEE (pp. 4641–4646).

  10. 10.

    Phan, C. V., & Vien, Q. T. (2020). Optimising coverage efficiency in heterogeneous wireless cellular networks. IET Communications, 14(17), 3022–3029.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Ghosh, A., Mangalvedhe, N., Ratasuk, R., Mondal, B., Cudak, M., Visotsky, E., et al. (2012). Heterogeneous cellular networks: From theory to practice. IEEE Communications Magazine, 50(6), 54–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Xie, B., Zhang, Z., Hu, R. Q., & Qian, Y. (2016). Spectral efficiency analysis in wireless heterogeneous networks. In 2016 IEEE international conference on communications (ICC), IEEE (pp. 1–6).

  13. 13.

    Coskun, C. C., Davaslioglu, K., & Ayanoglu, E. (2017). Three-stage resource allocation algorithm for energy-efficient heterogeneous networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 66(8), 6942–6957.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Xu, X., Kutrolli, G., & Mathar, R. (2013). Energy efficient power management for 4g heterogeneous cellular networks. In 2013 IEEE 9th international conference on wireless and mobile computing, networking and communications (WiMob), IEEE (pp. 231–238).

  15. 15.

    Dhillon, H. S., Ganti, R. K., Baccelli, F., & Andrews, J. G. (2012). Modeling and analysis of k-tier downlink heterogeneous cellular networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 30(3), 550–560.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Xu, Y., & Hu, Y. (2019). Robust energy-efficient downlink resource allocation in heterogeneous networks with outage probability constraint. Wireless Personal Communications, 104(1), 441–458.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Chavarria-Reyes, E., Akyildiz, I. F., & Fadel, E. (2015). Energy consumption analysis and minimization in multi-layer heterogeneous wireless systems. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 14(12), 2474–2487.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Soh, Y. S., Quek, T. Q., Kountouris, M., & Shin, H. (2013). Energy efficient heterogeneous cellular networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 31(5), 840–850.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Cai, R., Zhang, W., & Ching, P. C. (2015). Cost-efficient optimization of base station densities for multitier heterogeneous cellular networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 15(3), 2381–2393.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Ren, Q., Fan, J., Luo, X., Xu, Z., & Chen, Y. (2015). Energy efficient base station deployment scheme in heterogeneous cellular network. In 2015 IEEE 81st vehicular technology conference (VTC Spring), IEEE (pp. 1–5).

  21. 21.

    Liu, J. S., Lin, C. H., & Huang, H. C. (2019). Joint congestion control and resource allocation for energy-efficient transmission in 5g heterogeneous networks. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2019(1), 1–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Zhuang, B., Guo, D., & Honig, M. L. (2016). Energy-efficient cell activation, user association, and spectrum allocation in heterogeneous networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 34(4), 823–831.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Ma, C., Ding, M., López-Pérez, D., Lin, Z., Li, J., & Mao, G. (2018). Performance analysis of the idle mode capability in a dense heterogeneous cellular network. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 66(9), 3959–3973.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Farrokhi, A., & Ercetin, O. (2016). Qoe based random sleep-awake scheduling in heterogeneous cellular networks. In 2016 IEEE wireless communications and networking conference, IEEE (pp 1–6).

  25. 25.

    Fooladivanda, D., & Rosenberg, C. (2019). Joint user association and resource allocation in heterogeneous cellular networks: Comparison of two modeling approaches. In 2019 31st international teletraffic congress (ITC 31), IEEE (pp. 66–74).

  26. 26.

    Vora, A., & Kang, K. D. (2018). Effective 5g wireless downlink scheduling and resource allocation in cyber-physical systems. Technologies, 6(4), 105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Wang, X., Turgut, E., & Gursoy, M. C. (2019). Coverage in downlink heterogeneous mmWave cellular networks with user-centric small cell deployment. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 68(4), 3513–3533.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Vien, Q. T., Le, T. A., Nguyen, H. X., & Karamanoglu, M. (2015). An energy-efficient resource allocation for optimal downlink coverage in heterogeneous wireless cellular networks. In 2015 international symposium on wireless communication systems (ISWCS), IEEE (pp. 156–160).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ca V. Phan.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Denedo, D.O., Vien, QT. & Phan, C.V. Time-based resource allocation for downlink in heterogeneous wireless cellular networks. Telecommun Syst 78, 463–475 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11235-021-00829-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Heterogeneous networks
  • Resource allocation optimisation
  • Coverage probability
  • Power consumption
  • Time-based resource allocation