Skip to main content

Contextual optimization of location-based routing protocols for multi-hop cellular networks using mobile relays


Traditional single-hop cellular architectures fail to provide high and homogeneous quality of service levels throughout a cell area due to the strong signal attenuation with the distance. In this context, multi-hop cellular networks that utilize mobile relays and device-to-device communications have been proposed to overcome the physical limitations of conventional cellular architectures. One of the key building blocks of multi-hop cellular networks is the multi-hop routing of information from the source to the destination. This paper investigates the performance and energy signaling benefits of location-based multi-hop routing protocols. In particular, the paper demonstrates the benefits of a contextual optimization of this type of protocols in order to achieve a high end-to-end performance, while reducing the energy and signaling implementation cost.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7


  1. The value of \(hops_{max}\) has been chosen to realize large multi-hop connections (not necessarily limited to \(hops_{max}\) hops). However, since realistic multi-hop transmissions would probably employ a reduced number of hops, other values of \(hops_{max}\) could be feasible.


  1. Akyildiz, I. F., & Wang, X. (2009). Wireless mesh networks, advanced texts in communications and networking (1st ed.). New York: Wiley.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  2. Ashraf, U., Abdellatif, S., & Juanole, G. (2011). Route selection in IEEE 802.11 wireless mesh networks. Telecommunication Systems Journal, 52(4), 1–19.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Cao, L., Sharif, K., Wang, Y., & Dahlberg, T. (2008). Adaptive multiple metrics routing protocols for heterogeneous multi-hop wireless network. In Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC), USA, (pp. 13–17).

  4. Cavalcanti, D., Agrawal, D., Cordeiro, C., Bin, X., & Kumar, A. (2005). Issues in integrating cellular networks, WLANs, and MANETs: a futuristic heterogeneous wireless network. IEEE Wireless Communications, 12(3), 30–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Coll-Perales, B., & Gozalvez, J. (2009). Energy efficient routing protocols for multi-hop cellular networks. In Proceedings of the 20th IEEE Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Japan (pp. 1457–1461).

  6. Coll-Perales, B., & Gozalvez, J. (2009). Neighbor selection techniques for multi-hop wireless mesh networks. In Proceedings of the 34th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (9th IEEE Workshop on Wireless Local Networks (WLN)), Switzerland (pp. 1020–1026).

  7. Coll-Perales, B., & Gozalvez, J. (2011). On the capability of multi-hop cellular networks with mobile relays to improve handover performance. In Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS), Germany (pp. 207–211).

  8. Gajurel, S., Malakooti, B., & Limin, W. (2007). DA-MLAR-ODTP: Directional antenna multipath location aided routing with on demand transmission power. In Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing (ISWPC), Puerto Rico (pp. 1–6).

  9. Gozalvez, J., & Coll-Perales, B. (2013). Experimental evaluation of multihop cellular networks using mobile relays. IEEE Communications Magazine, 51(7), 122–129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Gozalvez, J., Sepulcre, M., & Bauza, R. (2010). Impact of the radio channel modelling on the performance of VANET communication protocols. Telecommunication Systems Journal 1–19, 50(3), 149–167.

  11. Iannone, L., & Fdida, S. (2006). Evaluating a cross-layer approach for routing in wireless mesh networks. Telecommunication Systems Journal, 31(2), 173–193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. IEEE Std 802.11s. (2011). Amendment to IEEE Std 802.11: Mesh networking. IEEE Standard.

  13. Kalhor, S., Anisi, M., & Haghighat, A.T. (2007). A new position-based routing protocol for reducing the number of exchanged route request messages in mobile ad-hoc networks. In Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Systems and Networks Communications (ICSNC), France (pp. 13–19).

  14. Karp, B., & Kung, H.T. (2000). GPSR: Greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks. In Proceedings of the 6th ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom), USA (pp. 243–254).

  15. Ko, Y., & Vaidya, H. (2000). Location-aided routing (LAR) in mobile ad-hoc networks. Wireless Networks, 6(4), 307–321.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Kun, W., & Meng, W. (2009). DBLAR: A distance-based location-aided routing for MANET. Journal of Electronics (China), 6(2), 152–160.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Maeda, K., Uchiyama, A., Umedu, T., Yamaguchi, H., & Higashino, T. (2009). Urban pedestrian mobility for mobile wireless network simulation. Ad Hoc Networks, 7(1), 153–170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Nakagawa, H., Ishida, K., Ohta, T., & Kakuda, Y. (2006). GOLI: Greedy on-demand routing scheme using location information for mobile ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCS), Portugal (pp. 1–6).

  19. Nen-Chung, W., & Si-Ming, W. (2005). An efficient location-aided routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. In Proceedings of the 11th IEEE International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS), Japan (pp. 335–341).

  20. Pabst, R., et al. (2004). Relay-based deployment concepts for wireless and mobile broadband radio. IEEE Communication Magazine, 42(9), 80–89.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Perkins, C., & Royer, E. (1999). Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing. In Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (WMCSA), USA (pp. 90–100).

  22. Rodriguez-Mayol, A., & Gozalvez, J. (2014). Reputation based selfishness prevention techniques for mobile ad-hoc networks. Telecommunication Systems Journal, 57(2), 181–195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. WINNER. D1.1.1. WINNER II interim channel models.

  24. Zhou, J., Venkatesha Prasad, R., Lu, Y., & Niemegeers, I. (2013). Simulation-based analysis of a multi-hop integrated UMTS and WLAN network. Telecommunication Systems Journal, 52(1), 327–340.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work has been supported by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Spain) and FEDER funds under the projects TEC2008-06728 and TEC2011-26109, by the Generalitat Valenciana under the project ACOMP/2010/111 and ACIF/2010/161, and by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (Spain) under the project TSI-020400-2008-113 (CELTIC proposal CP5-013).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to B. Coll-Perales.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Coll-Perales, B., Gozalvez, J. Contextual optimization of location-based routing protocols for multi-hop cellular networks using mobile relays. Telecommun Syst 61, 793–805 (2016).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Multi-hop cellular networks
  • Multi-hop routing
  • Mobile relays
  • Device-to-device communications
  • Contextual optimization
  • 5G