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Multi-user interference mitigation under limited feedback requirements for WCDMA systems with base station cooperation

Abstract

One of the techniques that has been recently identified for dealing with multi-user interference (MUI) in future communications systems is base station (BS) cooperation or joint processing. However, perfect MUI cancellation with this technique demands severe synchronization requirements, perfect and global channel state information (CSI), and an increased backhaul and signaling overhead. In this paper, we consider a more realistic layout with the aim of mitigating the MUI, where only local CSI is available at the BSs. Due to synchronization inaccuracies and errors in the channel estimation, the system becomes partially asynchronous. In the downlink of wideband code division multiple access based systems, this asynchronism stands for the loss of the orthogonality of the spreading codes allocated to users and thus, for an increase in the MUI level of the system. In this contribution, we propose a framework for mitigating the MUI which builds in three main steps: definition of a cooperation area based on the channel characteristics, statistical modeling of the average MUI power experienced by each user and a specific spreading code allocation scheme for users served with joint processing. This code allocation assigns spreading codes to users in such a way that minimum average cross-correlation between active users can be achieved. Interestingly, these steps can be performed with a limited amount of extra feedback from the user’s side.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    CSI between one BS and all the users that is serving.

  2. 2.

    The cluster remains fixed in time.

  3. 3.

    The orthogonality factor is defined as the instantaneous fraction of received downlink power converted by multipath into interference.

  4. 4.

    Area where BS cooperation is actually performed.

  5. 5.

    Since the system model considers linear arrays of \(N_a\) and \(N_r\) antennas with half of the wavelength separation co-located at the BS and user device, respectively, we can assume that the different angles of arrival of the received signal are common to all the antennas [40], and so are the propagation delays \(\tau _{m,k,l}\).

  6. 6.

    As remarked in the previous section, the numbering of the BSs is not fixed, but it depends on the composite channel state of a given user: BS1, in addition of being the serving BS for user \(m\), is that whose \(\tau _{m,k,1}\) is the minimum.

  7. 7.

    OVSF codes have been considered throughout the paper, but average MUI contribution could be calculated as stated in the previous section for any set of channelization codes.

  8. 8.

    OVSF codes are sequentially assigned from 1 to \(N\) through the OVSF layer.

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Acknowledgments

C. Botella’s work has been partially supported by the Spanish MINECO Grants CONSOLIDER-INGENIO 2010 CSD 2008-00010 COMONSENS and RACHEL TEC2013-47141-C4-4-R. G. Piñero and M. de Diego’s work has been supported by European Union ERDF and Spanish Government through TEC2012-38142-C04 Project, and Generalitat Valenciana through PROMETEOII/2014/003 Project.

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Botella, C., Piñero, G. & de Diego, M. Multi-user interference mitigation under limited feedback requirements for WCDMA systems with base station cooperation. Telecommun Syst 61, 543–557 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11235-015-0011-z

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Keywords

  • Coordinated MultiPoint
  • WCDMA
  • Multi-user interference mitigation