Telecommunication Systems

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 43–62 | Cite as

A lifetime extended multi-levels heterogeneous routing protocol for wireless sensor networks

  • Sudhanshu Tyagi
  • Sudeep Tanwar
  • Sumit Kumar Gupta
  • Neeraj Kumar
  • Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues


IoT, Smart Grid and M2M are paradigms that are expected to dominate in 5G networks and, hence, the role of WSNs is of great importance. In WSNs, horizontal and vertical levels of node heterogeneity has been studied in the past for various operation such as data capturing, processing and communication at different levels of nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). For saving energy consumption of nodes in these networks, many existing proposals in literature have considered 1st to \(k\)th level energy heterogeneity of sensor nodes. But major problem in the existing solutions is that an enhancement of initial energy of network may not guarantee an enhancement of initial energy for higher level nodes in comparison to the lower level nodes. In addition to this, number of nodes in higher level is always less than the number of nodes in lower level. To address these issues, in this paper, we proposed a new lifetime extended multi-levels heterogeneous routing (LE-MHR) protocol for WSNs, which includes \(k\) levels horizontal energy heterogeneity. LE-MHR gives a guarantee for an enhancement of initial energy of network field for higher level, and number of advanced nodes is independent to any level of hierarchy in the network. Performance of the proposed scheme was evaluated by performing extensive simulations with respect to various performance evaluation parameters and results obtained were compared with other pre-existing prominent protocols. Results obtained shows that, by varying the initial energy, and energy heterogeneity parameters, the network lifetime of LE-MHR was improved 53.7, 46.9 and 44.1 % with respect to SEP, MCR and EEMHR protocols respectively.


Heterogeneous Lifetime Stability  QNA and LNA 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sudhanshu Tyagi
    • 1
  • Sudeep Tanwar
    • 2
  • Sumit Kumar Gupta
    • 3
  • Neeraj Kumar
    • 4
  • Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringJPIETMeerutIndia
  2. 2.Department of Information TechnologyBITMeerutIndia
  3. 3.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringIIMTMeerutIndia
  4. 4.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringThapar UniversityPatialaIndia
  5. 5.Instituto de TelecomunicaçõesUniversity of Beira InteriorCovilhãPortugal
  6. 6.University ITMOSaint PetersburgRussia

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