A lifetime extended multi-levels heterogeneous routing protocol for wireless sensor networks
- 433 Downloads
IoT, Smart Grid and M2M are paradigms that are expected to dominate in 5G networks and, hence, the role of WSNs is of great importance. In WSNs, horizontal and vertical levels of node heterogeneity has been studied in the past for various operation such as data capturing, processing and communication at different levels of nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). For saving energy consumption of nodes in these networks, many existing proposals in literature have considered 1st to \(k\)th level energy heterogeneity of sensor nodes. But major problem in the existing solutions is that an enhancement of initial energy of network may not guarantee an enhancement of initial energy for higher level nodes in comparison to the lower level nodes. In addition to this, number of nodes in higher level is always less than the number of nodes in lower level. To address these issues, in this paper, we proposed a new lifetime extended multi-levels heterogeneous routing (LE-MHR) protocol for WSNs, which includes \(k\) levels horizontal energy heterogeneity. LE-MHR gives a guarantee for an enhancement of initial energy of network field for higher level, and number of advanced nodes is independent to any level of hierarchy in the network. Performance of the proposed scheme was evaluated by performing extensive simulations with respect to various performance evaluation parameters and results obtained were compared with other pre-existing prominent protocols. Results obtained shows that, by varying the initial energy, and energy heterogeneity parameters, the network lifetime of LE-MHR was improved 53.7, 46.9 and 44.1 % with respect to SEP, MCR and EEMHR protocols respectively.
KeywordsHeterogeneous Lifetime Stability QNA and LNA
- 1.Tuna, G., Gungor, V. C., & Gulez, K. (2013) Wireless sensor networks for smart grid applications: A case study on link reliability and node lifetime evaluations in power distribution systems. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks. Article ID 796248, 11 p. doi:10.1155/2013/796248.
- 2.Serra, J. et al. (2014). Smart HVAC control in IoT: Energy consumption minimization with user comfort constraints. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, Article ID 161874, 11 p.Google Scholar
- 11.Georgios, S., Ibrahim, M., & Azer, B. (2004). SEP: A stable election protocol for clustered heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. Supported in part by NSF grants ITR ANI-0205294, EIA-0202067, ANI-0095988, and ANI-9986397, pp 1–11.Google Scholar
- 12.Heinzelman, W. R., Chandrakasan, A., & Balakrishnan, H. (2000). Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 33rd IEEE Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS, IEEE Computer Society, Maui, HI, (pp. 1–10).Google Scholar
- 18.Manjeshwar, A., & Agrawal, D. P. (2001). TEEN: A protocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Computing Issues in Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing, San Francisco, April, 2001.Google Scholar
- 19.Manjeshwar, A., & Agrawal, D. P. (2002). APTEEN: A hybrid protocol for efficient routing and comprehensive information retrieval in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Computing Issues in Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, April, 2002.Google Scholar
- 22.Handy, M. J., Haase, M., & Timmermann, D. (2002). Low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy with deterministic cluster head selection. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE on Mobile and Wireless Communication Networks, (pp. 368–372).Google Scholar
- 24.Tyagi, S., Gupta, S. K., Tanwar, S., & Kumar, N. (2013). EHE-LEACH: Enhanced heterogeneous LEACH protocol for lifetime enhancement of wireless SNs. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI), Mysore, (pp. 1485–1490), August, 2013.Google Scholar
- 25.Faisal, S., Javaid, N., Javaid, A., Khan, M. A., Bouk, S. H., & Khan, Z. A. (2013). Z-SEP: Zonal stable election protocol for wireless sensor network. Journal of Basic Applied Sciences and Research, 3(5), 132–139.Google Scholar
- 28.Tanwar, S., Kumar, N., & Niu, J. W. EEMHR: Energy efficient multi level heterogeneous routing protocol for wireless sensor network. International Journal of Communication System. DOI:10.1002/dac.2780.
- 29.Aderohunmu, F. A., & Deng, J. D., An Enhanced Stable Election Protocol (E-SEP) for Clustered Heterogeneous WSN. Department of Information Science, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.Google Scholar