Recent communication networks are commonly protected against random failures, i.e. being the results of forces of nature, human errors, or hardware faults. In simulation experiments, network topologies are often assumed to be more or less regular. Known mechanisms typically refer to the case of unicast traffic protection. However, owing to the observed convergence of technologies/services, the importance of other transmission techniques (e.g. anycast, or multicast) has been increasing. Moreover, it turns out that neither failures of network elements are only the results of random faults, nor topologies of real networks are purely regular.
In this paper we introduce a novel technique, called RA (the abbreviation for “resistant-to-attacks”) of protecting the anycast and unicast flows against attacks on irregular networks. In particular, we propose a new metric of link costs to be used in working path computations with the objective to avoid traversing the nodes of high degree (i.e. vulnerable to attacks). The extent of losses after attacks is further decreased by locating the anycast replica servers at low-degree nodes.
The ILP model for joint optimization of anycast and unicast flows has been formulated and followed by the time-efficient heuristic algorithm. Path protection scheme for the case of protection against a single node failure is assumed. For each anycast demand, working and backup replica servers are located at different network nodes (disjoint replica model).
Simulation results confirm that our approach provides a remarkable decrease (up to 7.47 times) in terms of the total number of connections broken due to attacks, compared to the results for the common case of locating the replica servers at high-degree nodes, and utilizing the metric of distance to find both working and backup paths.
Ali, M. (2004). Shareability in optical networks: beyond bandwidth optimization. IEEE Optical Communications, 42(2), s11–s15.
Autenrieth, A. (2003). Recovery time analysis of differentiated resilience in MPLS. In Proceedings of design of reliable communication networks’03-DRCN’03 (pp. 333–340).
Autenrieth, A., & Kirstaedler, A. (2002). Engineering end-to-end resilience using resilience differentiated QoS. IEEE Communications Magazine, 40(1), 50–57.
Awerbuch, B., Brinkmann, A., & Scheideler, C. (2003). Anycasting adversarial systems: routing and admission control. In LNCS: Vol. 2719 (pp. 1153–1168). Berlin: Springer.
Barabási, A.-L., & Albert, R. (1999). Emergence of scaling in random networks. Science, 286, 509–511.
Barr, R. S., & Kingsley, M. S. (2003). Grooming telecommunications networks: optimization models and methods (Technical report-EMIS-03). Southern Methodist University, Dallas, USA, 1–27.
Buford, J., Yu, H., & Lua, E. (2009). P2P networking and applications. San Mateo: Morgan Kaufmann.
Chow, T. Y., Chudak, F., & Ffrench, A. M. (2004). Fast optical layer mesh protection using pre-cross connected trails. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 12(3), 539–548.
Dijkstra, E. (1959). A note on two problems in connection with graphs. Numerische Mathematik, 1, 269–271.
Goh, K.-I., Oh, E. S., Jeong, H., Kahng, B., & Kim, D. (2002). Classification of scale free networks. arXiv:cond-mat/0205232, v2 10 Oct. 2002.
Grover, W. D., & Stamatelakis, D. (1998). Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration. In Proc. IEEE ICC’98 (Vol. 1, pp. 537–543).
Ho, P.-H., & Mouftah, H. T. (2004). Shared protection in mesh WDM. Networks, 42(1), 70–76.
Hofmann, M., & Beaumont, L. (2005). Content networking: architecture, protocols, and practice. San Mateo: Morgan Kaufmann.
Hyytia, E. (2004). Heuristic algorithms for the generalized routing and wavelength assignment problem. In Proceedings of 17th Nordic teletraffic seminar NTS-17 (pp. 373–386).
ILOG AMPL/CPLEX software: www.ilog.com/products/cplex/.
Jaumard, B., & Sebbah, S. (2009). PWCE design in survivable WDM networks using unrestricted shape p-structure patterns. In Proc. IEEE Sarnoff’09 (pp. 1–5).
Ma, H., Fayek, D., & Ho, P.-H. (2008). Availability-constrained multipath protection in backbone networks with double-link failure. In Proc. IEEE ICC’08 (pp. 158–164).
Mukherjee, B. (2006). Optical WDM networks. Berlin: Springer.
Rak, J. (2010). k-Penalty: a novel approach to find k-disjoint paths with differentiated path costs. IEEE Communications Letters, 14(4), 354–356.
Ramasubramanian, S., & Chandak, A. (2008). Dual-link failure resiliency through backup link mutual exclusion. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 16(1), 157–169.
Vasseur, J.-P., Pickavet, M., & Demeester, P. (2004). Network recovery. San Mateo: Morgan Kaufmann.
Walkowiak, K. (2007). Anycast communication—a new approach to survivability of connection-oriented networks, CCIS, 1 (pp. 378–389) Berlin: Springer.
Zhou, S., & Mondragón, R. J. (2004). The rich-club phenomenon in the Internet topology. IEEE Communications Letters, 8(3), 180–182.
About this article
Cite this article
Rak, J., Walkowiak, K. Reliable anycast and unicast routing: protection against attacks. Telecommun Syst 52, 889–906 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11235-011-9583-4