Nematodes found in Nile crocodiles in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, with redescriptions of Multicaecum agile (Wedl, 1861) (Heterocheilidae) and Camallanus kaapstaadi Southwell & Kirshner, 1937 (Camallanidae)

Abstract

Sixteen Nile crocodiles were collected in the Kruger National Park, South Africa and vicinity during 2010 and 2011. A total of 11 nematode species representing six families were recovered. Heterocheilids were the dominant group, comprising five species, with Dujardinascaris madagascariensis (Chabaud & Caballero, 1966) being the most prevalent (75%), followed by Ingwenascaris sprenti Junker & Mutafchiev, 2017 (68.8%), which was also the second most numerous nematode. While less prevalent (31.3%), Typhlophoros kwenae Junker & Mutafchiev, 2017 was the most abundant species. Micropleura huchzermeyeri Junker & Mutafchiev, 2017 (Micropleuridae) was collected from five crocodiles and Crocodylocapillaria sp. (Capillariidae) occurred in a single host. Three nematodes, Camallanus kaapstaadi Southwell & Kirshner, 1937, Spirocamallanus sp. (both Camallanidae) and Ascarophis sp. (Cystidicolidae), are considered accidental infections, likely ingested with the hosts’ prey. Our findings of D. dujardini (Travassos, 1920), D. madagascariensis and Multicaecum agile (Wedl, 1861) in South Africa constitute new geographical records. Crocodylocapillaria sp. represents a new host and geographical record, while T. kwenae, I. sprenti and M. huchzermeyeri have been described as new species during the course of this survey. Multicaecum agile is here redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Previously undescribed morphological characters of C. kaapstaadi, typically a parasite of Xenopus spp. (Amphibia: Pipidae), but here found in two Nile crocodiles, are also presented.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank Mr Daniel Chipana and Mr Frans Masubelle, ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, South Africa, for their help with parasite recovery from the ingesta. Prof Tomáš Scholz, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, has kindly identified the metacestodes for us.

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Junker, K., Boomker, J., Govender, D. et al. Nematodes found in Nile crocodiles in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, with redescriptions of Multicaecum agile (Wedl, 1861) (Heterocheilidae) and Camallanus kaapstaadi Southwell & Kirshner, 1937 (Camallanidae). Syst Parasitol 96, 381–398 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11230-019-09856-w

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