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Revision of Podocotyloides Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Opecoelidae), resurrection of Pedunculacetabulum Yamaguti, 1934 and the naming of a cryptic opecoelid species

Abstract

Despite morphological and ecological inconsistencies among species, all plagioporine opecoelids with a pedunculate ventral sucker are currently considered to belong in the genus Podocotyloides Yamaguti, 1934. We revise the genus based on combined morphological and phylogenetic analyses of novel material collected from haemulid fishes in Queensland waters that we interpret to represent species congeneric with the type-species, Pod. petalophallus Yamaguti, 1934, also known from a haemulid, off Japan. Our phylogenetic analysis demonstrates polyphyly of Podocotyloides; prompts us to resurrect Pedunculacetabulum Yamaguti, 1934; and suggests that Pod. brevis Andres & Overstreet, 2013, from a deep-sea congrid in the Caribbean, and Pod. parupenei (Manter, 1963) Pritchard, 1966 and Pod. stenometra Pritchard, 1966, from mullids and chaetodontids, respectively, on the Great Barrier Reef, may each represent a distinct genus awaiting recognition. Our revised concept of Podocotyloides requires a pedunculate ventral sucker, but also a uterine sphincter prior to the genital atrium, a petalloid cirrus appendage, restriction of the vitelline follicles to the hindbody, and for the excretory vesicle to reach to the level of the ventral sucker. Of about 20 nominal species, we recognise just three in Podocotyloides (sensu stricto): Pod. petalophallus, Pod. gracilis (Yamaguti, 1952) Pritchard, 1966 and Pod. magnatestes Aleshkina & Gaevskaya, 1985. We provide new records for Pod. gracilis, and propose two new species of Podocotyloides, Pod. australis n. sp. and Pod. brevivesiculatus n. sp., and one new Pedunculacetabulum species, Ped. inopinipugnus n. sp., all from haemulids. Podocotyloides australis is morphologically indistinguishable from Pod. gracilis, and exploits the same definitive host, but is genetically and biogeographically distinct. It is thus a cryptic species, the first such opecoelid to be formally named.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the staff of Lizard Island Research Station, Heron Island Research Station and Moreton Bay Research Station for their continued support enabling field collecting, two anonymous reviewers who provided thorough and useful suggestions which improved the manuscript, our colleague, Daniel Huston, for collecting the haemulids in Moreton Bay, and Dr Jeff Johnson, Queensland Museum, for confirming the identification of the subadult Plectorhinchus lineatus collected in Moreton Bay.

Funding

SBM is supported by a Holsworth Wildlife Research Endowment and a PhD scholarship provided through the Australian Government’s Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS) National Taxonomy Research Grant Programme (NTRGP), grant number CT215-14. Collection within Moreton Bay was part of a larger effort to characterise the metazoan parasite fauna of fishes from that region, funded by an ABRS grant (RF215-40) awarded to SCC and THC.

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Correspondence to Storm B. Martin.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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This study was conducted in compliance with all institutional, national and international guidelines on the care and use of animals.

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This article was registered in the Official Register of Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as 9621DE2C-F1AB-4385-B002-085AE5AD2E67. This article was published as an Online First article on the online publication date shown on this page. The article should be cited by using the doi number. This is the Version of Record.

This article is part of the Topical Collection Digenea.

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Martin, S.B., Cutmore, S.C. & Cribb, T.H. Revision of Podocotyloides Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Opecoelidae), resurrection of Pedunculacetabulum Yamaguti, 1934 and the naming of a cryptic opecoelid species. Syst Parasitol 95, 1–31 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11230-017-9761-1

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