Based on light and scanning electron microscopical observations, Typhlophoros kwenae n. sp. (Heterocheilidae), a new nematode parasite, is described from the stomach of the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti in South Africa. In having three lips with well-developed posterior prolongations and prominent interlabial longitudinal cuticular ridges, four pairs of precloacal papillae and complex spicules divided into handle and broad alate blade in males, as well as the position of the vulva near mid-body in females, the specimens conform to the generic diagnosis of Typhlophoros von Linstow, 1906. They can, however, be distinguished from the two previously described congeners, T. lamellaris von Linstow, 1906 and T. spratti Sprent, 1999, by the number of complete interlabial ridges, the length of spicules in males and the position of the vulva as well as the length of the tail in females. This is the first record of the genus Typhlophoros from the Afrotropical Realm.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Beck, C., & Forrester, D. J. (1988). Helminths of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, with a discussion and summary of the parasites of sirenians. Journal of Parasitology, 74, 628–637.
Chabaud, A. G., & Bain, O. (1966). Description de Hartwichia rousseloti n. gen., n. sp., ascaride parasite de crocodile et remarques sur la famille des Heterocheilidae Railliet et Henry, 1912. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Historie Naturelle, 2e Série, 37, 848–853.
Colón-Llavina, M. M., Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A., Mattiucci, S., Paoletti, M., Nascetti, G., & Williams, E. H., Jr. (2009). Additional records of metazoan parasites from Caribbean marine mammals, including genetically identified anisakid nematodes. Parasitology Research, 105, 1239–1252.
Crocodile Specialist Group. (1996a). Crocodylus niloticus. The IUCN red list of threatened species 1996: e.T46590A11064465. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T46590A11064465.en, 06/2017.
Crocodile Specialist Group. (1996b). Osteolaemus tetraspis. The IUCN red list of threatened species 1996: e.T15635A4931429. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T15635A4931429.en, 06/2017.
Eaton, M. J., Martin, A., Thorbjarnarson, J., & Amato, G. (2009). Species-level diversification of African dwarf crocodiles (Genus Osteolaemus): a geographic and phylogenetic perspective. Molecular and Phylogenetic Evolution, 50, 496–506.
Huchzermeyer, F. W. (2003). Crocodiles: Biology, husbandry and diseases (pp. 1–352). Wallingford: CABI.
ICZN (2012). International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: Amendment of articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 69, 161–169.
Junker, K., & Mutafchiev, Y. (2017a). Micropleura huchzermeyeri n. sp. (Camallanida: Dracunculoidea: Micropleuridae) from the Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti (Reptilia: Crocodylidae), in South Africa. Systematic Parasitology, 94, 785–795.
Junker, K., & Mutafchiev, Y. (2017b). Ingwenascaris n. g. (Nematoda: Ascaridida: Heterocheilidae), established for I. sprenti n. sp. and I. assymmetrica (Ortlepp, 1932) n. comb., parasites of African crocodiles and an identification key to the genera of Heterocheilidae. Systematic Parasitology, 94, 849–859.
Maplestone, P. A. (1930). Parasitic nematodes obtained from the animals dying in the Calcutta Zoological Gardens. Records of the Indian Museum, 32, 385–412.
Ortlepp, R. J. (1932). Two new ascarids from crocodiles. Journal of the South African Veterinary Medical Association, 111, 70–75.
Reynierse, C. (1991). South African multi-language dictionary and phrase book (p. 495). Cape Town: The Reader’s Digest Association South Africa.
Shirley, M. H. (2014). Mecistops cataphractus. The IUCN red list of threatened species 2014: e. T5660A3044332. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T5660A3044332.en, 06/2017.
Sprent, J. F. A. (1980). Ascaridoid nematodes of Sirenians - the Heterocheilinae redefined. Journal of Helminthology, 54, 309–328.
Sprent, J. F. A. (1983a). Ascaridoid nematodes of sirenians - a new species in the Senegal manatee. Journal of Helminthology, 57, 69–76.
Sprent, J. F. A. (1983b). Ascaridoid nematodes of amphibians and reptiles: Typhlophorus, Hartwichia and Trispiculascaris. Journal of Helminthology, 57, 179–189.
Sprent, J. F. A. (1999). Species of Typhlophoros von Linstow, 1906 (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) in Old World crocodilians. Systematic Parasitology, 43, 229–236.
Tellez, M. (2013). Checklist of host-parasite interactions of the order Crocodylia. University Press California, 376 pp.
von Linstow, O. (1906). Parasites from the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus Geoffr.). Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, Bengal, 2, 269–271.
The authors thank Dr Danny Govender, Kruger National Park, South Africa, for facilitating and co-ordinating the crocodile study as well as performing the post-mortem examination of the crocodiles, together with the late Dr Fritz W. Huchzermeyer, University of Pretoria. We are indebted to Professor Joop Boomker, University of Pretoria, for lending his expertise to the dissection of gastrointestinal tracts and preparation of aliquots. The assistance of Mr Frans Masubelle and Mr Daniel Chipana, ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, with parasite recovery from the ingesta is appreciated.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable institutional, national and international guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
This article was registered in the Official Register of Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as 736A7356-ECB3-4A81-B2A2-D7026030795B. This article was published as an Online First article on the online publication date shown on this page. The article should be cited by using the doi number. This is the Version of Record.
This article is part of the Topical Collection Nematoda.
About this article
Cite this article
Junker, K., Mutafchiev, Y. Typhlophoros kwenae n. sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridida: Heterocheilidae), a gastric parasite from the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti (Reptilia: Crocodylidae) in South Africa. Syst Parasitol 94, 971–978 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11230-017-9757-x